PROGRAMME & ABSTRACTS

PROGRAMME & ABSTRACTS

 

WEDNESDAY 22 MAY

 

14.30– 15.30 Registration and Welcome Coffee

 

15.30 – 16.00 Conference Opening (Chapel)

 

16.00 – 18.00 Parallel session 1

1a – From the colonial era to the Cold war (Chapel) 

Chair: Ubaldo Iaccarino (Institute of Taiwan History, Academia Sinica)

 

Natasha Pairaudeau (Cambridge University) – Borderland Conundrum: Kula Gem Mining at the Siamese-Indochinese frontier.

 

Nicola Mocci (University of Sassari) – Making Saigon Modern: the Tramway of Saigon and the Business of Public French Concessionaires.

 

Maurizio Peleggi (National University of Singapore) – Archaeology and Ideology in Cold War Southeast Asia.  

 

Guido Creta (University of Naples  “L’Orientale”) – The Events of 1965 in Indonesia: The Perspectives of the Italian Embassy.

 

 

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1b – Culture and tradition (Computer room)

Chair: Silvia Vignato (University of Milano Bicocca)

 

Ilaria Meloni (Sapienza University of Rome) – Sindhen “jaman dulu” and sindhen “jaman now”: the Influence of the Cultural Politics on the Javanese Female Singing Tradition and its Tansformations from the 18th Century until Nowadays. 

 

Eva Rapoport (Mahidol University) – How Spirits Democratize Arts: A Case of Javanese Folk Trance Dance.

 

Luigi Monteanni (University of Bologna) – How they Behave and how you should not Behave: Kasenian Réak, the Sundanese Horse Trance Dance.

 

Inda Grossi (University of Bologna) – Spiritual Healing Techniques in Bali: Research among Siwa Murti Balian.

 

 

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THURSDAY 23 MAY

 

 

8.45 – 9.30 Plenary session (Chapel)

 

Area studies: a crisis of legitimacy? 

Presenter: Jonathan Rigg (University of Bristol) 

Chair: Pietro P. Masina (University of Naples “L’Orientale”)

 

 

 

9.30 – 11.30 Parallel session 2

2a – Politics (Chapel)

Chair: Giuseppe Gabusi (University of Turin)

 

Tomas Larsson (University of Cambridge) – Royal succession and the politics of religious purification in contemporary Thailand .

 

Jayeel S. Cornelio (Ateneo de Manila University) – Christianity and Duterte’s War on Drugs in the Philippines.

 

Lucrezia Canzutti (Newcastle University) – From Friends to Liability: Vietnam’s shifting relations with the Vietnamese diaspora in Cambodia.

 

Silvia Vignato (University of Milano Bicocca) - Unplanned pregnancies, moralities and the outset of BPJS in Aceh, Indonesia.

 

 

 

2b – Literature and art (Library)

Chair: Ulrich Kozok (University of Hawaii)

 

Manneke Budiman (Universitas Indonesia) – Writing Technology and the Return of Orality in Contemporary Indonesian Novels.

 

Soleman Karmani (University of Hamburg) – The Interplay between Religious Practice and Socio-cultural Understanding in Indonesian Literature. A Literary Analysis on Short Story: Pohon-Pohon yang Dibunuh Oleh Tim Doa (A Short Story of West Timorese Culture and Society).

 

Luigi Sausa (University of Naples “L’Orientale”) – Galau, Comics in Translation: Translation Process and Pragmatic Equivalence in Indonesian-Italian Translation of Galauman and Argyre Comic.


Carmencita Palermo (University of Naples “L’Orientale”) - 
About Women by Women: Community Performance and the Voicing the Heroic.


 

Antonia Soriente (University of Naples “L’Orientale”) - Roles, morality and criticism of women in Indonesian Literature: some case studies.

 

11.30 – 12.00 Coffee break

 


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12.00 – 13.30 Parallel session 3

3a – ASEAN and regional integration (Chapel)

Chair: Bridget Welsh (John Cabot University, Rome)

 

Sophie Boisseau du Rocher (Center for Asian Studies, IFRI) – ASEAN’s challenged centrality

 

David Camroux (Sciences Po, CERI / Vietnam National University of Hanoi) – Liberal Democracy / Electoral Authoritarianism in Southeast Asia and ASEAN’s’ Collective Norms.

 

Marissa Maricosa A. Paderon (Ateneo de Manila University) – Regional Economic Integration of the EU and ASEAN.

 

 

 

 

3b – Society and Economic Challenges (Computer room)

Chair: Philippe Régnier (University of Applied Sciences, Western Switzerland)

 

Leonardo A. Lanzona, Jr (Ateneo de Manila University) – Households and Communities: Factors Affecting Demand for Justice of Drug War Survivors Under a Repressive Regime.

 

Dwi Winarsih (La Rochelle Université France) – The Government’s Effort to Integrate Middlemen with Formal Markets Mechanism: a Case Study of the Indonesian Commodity Auction Market.

 

Manoj Potapohn & Nuttha Potapohn (Chiang Mai University) – A Survey of Flower Markets in Thailand and Southeast Asia.

 

 

 

 

3c – Languages and Linguistics (Library)

Chair: Antonia Soriente (University of Naples “L’Orientale”)

 

Sander Adelaar (University of Melbourne) – South Borneo as an ancient Sprachbund area.

 

Dawid M. Gajewski (University of Pavia) – Javanese influence on Indonesian person deixis in Central Java .

 

Patrizia Pacioni (SOAS, University of London) – On Some Multifunctional Particles in Khmer.

 

13.30 – 14.30 Lunch

 

 

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14.30 – 16.30 Parallel session 4

4a – Economic Regional Integration and Labour (Chapel)

Chair: Leonardo A. Lanzona, Jr (Ateneo de Manila University)

 

Evelyn Shyamala Devadason, (University of Malaya) – A Revisit of State Policies Related to Immigrants and Labour Market Outcomes in Malaysia.

 

Pietro Masina (University of Naples “L’Orientale”) – Semi-industrialization and precarious work in Southeast Asia: evidence from Indonesia and Vietnam.

 

Raimondo Neironi, (Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Milan) – From the Co-Prosperity sphere to a win-win situation? Southeast Asia and the impact on Japan’s economic recovery after the World War II, 1945-1960.

 

Giacomo Tabacco (University of Naples  “L’Orientale” and University of Milano Bicocca) – Infrastructural assemblages, appropriations and failures in two atypical Indonesian Special Economic Zones; Batam and Lhokseumawe

 


 

.4b – Travels and Navigations (Library)

Chair: Andrew Hardy (École Française d’Extrême-Orient)

 

Jillian Louise Melchor (University of the Philippines Diliman) – Accounts of ’Placelessness’ from the Philippine Islands in Antonio Pigafetta’s Relazione del primo viaggio intorno al mondo and Giovanni Francesco Gemelli Careri’s Giro del mondo. Vol. 5: Isole Filippine.

 

Giuseppina Monaco (University of Naples  “L’Orientale”) – Elio Modigliani’s adventures across Sumatra island in the late 19th century.

 

Ramayda Akmal (University of Hamburg) – Europe as the Other in Contemporary Indonesian Travel Literature.

 

Maurizio Borriello (University of Naples “L’Orientale”) – A trans-disciplinary approach to the study of Indonesian prahu vessels.

 

 

 

4c – Democracy and Authoritarianism (Computer Room)

Chair: Tomas Larsson (University of Cambridge)

 

Bridget Welsh (John Cabot University, Rome) – A (Losing) Battle for Democracy in Southeast Asia?

 

Stefano Ruzza, Giuseppe Gabusi, & Davide Pellegrino (University of Turin) – Authoritarian resilience through top-down transformation: making sense of Myanmar’s incomplete transition.

 

Marc Pinol (University of Bristol) – Digital democracy in hybrid regimes; the case study of Cambodia.

 

 

16.30 – 17.00 Coffee break

 

17.00 – 19.00 Parallel session 5

 

 

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5a – History (Chapel)

Chair: Maurizio Peleggi (Singapore National University)

 

Ubaldo Iaccarino (Institute of Taiwan History, Academia Sinica) – Trade and Smuggling around the Philippines: Ports, Routes, and Networks (16th-17th Centuries).

 

Jacques P. Leider (École Française d’Extrême-Orient) – The quarry of the historical archive and the shifting discourse on victimhood: a review of the Rohingya case 1988-2018.

 

Gianpietro Sette (University of Padua) – Dragoman and pirates: Transposition of a case study from the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean.

 

Andrew Hardy (École Française d’Extrême-Orient) – General, Diplomat, Ethnographer: Nguyen Tan and the Pacification of the Borderlands of Quang Ngai (Vietnam), 1863-1871.

 

 

 

 

5b – Cities, Urbanisation and the Rural World (Library)

Chair: Jonathan Rigg (University of Bristol)

 

Giulia Zaninelli (University of Milano Bicocca) – Visions of environmental change: farmers and environmentalists within small oil palm plantations in Riau, Indonesia 

 

Antonella Diana (Ca’ Foscari University of Venice) – “Sauté urbanisation”: the tension between ville and cité in an emerging border city in China’s South-west

 

Philippe Régnier (University of Applied Sciences, Western Switzerland) Connecting Hinter-World and Hinterlands: Exploring Regional and World Functions of Global Cities in Southeast Asia

 

Carolina Boldoni (CRIA-ISCTE University of Lisbon) – Uma Lulik as Heritage: Ancestors, Agriculture, Kinship

 

 

 

5c – Language, Ethnography and Philology (Computer room)

Chair: Sander Adelaar (University of Melbourne)

 

Aurora Donzelli (Sarah Lawrence University) – Romantic Democracy: Love Songs, Political Speeches, and Shifting Political Economies of Emotions in Toraja (Indonesia).

 

Andrea Gallo (University of Hanoi) – Nôm reminiscence in modern Vietnamese language: the case of hồn and vía. 

 

Roberta Zollo (University of Hamburg) – Building collections from colonized Indonesia: historical and ethical perspective in the case of the Batak collection of the ethnographic museum of Hamburg.

 

Ulrich Kozok (University of Hawaii) – Petrus Voorhoeve (1899-1996) and Liberty Manik (1924-1993) were the most important Batak philologists in the 20th century.

 

20.30 Conference Social Dinner

 

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FRIDAY 24 MAY

 

 

9.00 – 11.00 Parallel session 6 

6a– Challenges to Regional Integration (Chapel)

Chair: Sophie Boisseau du Rocher (Center for Asian Studies, IFRI)

 

Michał Zaręba (University of Lodz) – Hydropolitics of the Mekong River Basin and Its Influence on Regional Integration.

 

Paulo Castro Seixas, Nuno Canas Mendes & Nadine Lobner (ISCSP, Universidade de Lisboa) – The ‘readiness’ of Timor-Leste: Narratives about the admission procedure to ASEAN. 

 

Arlo Poletti & Daniela Sicurelli (University of Trento) – Promoting sustainable development through trade? EU trade agreement with Vietnam and global value chains. 

 

Giuseppe Gabusi (University of Turin and T.wai – Torino World Affairs Institute) – Feeling the pressure: The border factor in Myanmar’s interaction with China and India.

 

 

 

6b – Environment (Computer Room)

Chair: Tomasz Kamiński (University of Lodz)

 

Tomasz Kamiński (University of Lodz) – International cooperation of South East Asian cities: environmental dimension.

 

Robert A. Farnan (Chiang Mai University) – Hydroscapes of Knowledge and Controversy: Infrastructural Publics and Transboundary Environmental Governance and Activism in Myanmar and Thailand.

 

Viana Alzola Nerea (Université de Genève) – The dynamics of the JCM: to what extent does it contribute to the creation of a low-carbon society? 

 

Andrea Valente and Lunting Wu (ISCSP, Universidade de Lisboa) – Southeast Asia’s Transition to A Low-Carbon Economy and the Role of External Actors: A Comparative Study on the EU and China’s Science Diplomacy towards the ASEAN.

 

 

 

 

6c – Representations and Identities (Library)

Chair: Aurora Donzelli (Sarah Lawrence University)

 

Vincenzo della Ratta – (CASE- Centre Asie du Sud-Est, Paris) – Is there a relation between the scenes depicted on the Dong Son bronze drums and the secondary mortuary ritual of the Jarai people (Central Highlands of Vietnam)?

 

Lê Thùy Hiền (University of Naples “L’Orientale”) – Vietnamese National Intangible Cultural Heritage: Dong Ho Woodcut Painting.

 

Roberto Rizzo (University of Milan Bicocca) – Pemuda Buddhis and the historical imagination. Becoming community in a Javanese Buddhist revival.

 

Esti Ismawati, Warsito (Universitas Widya Dharma Klaten, Indonesia) – Local Wisdom in the Works of Surakarta Palace Poets and Creative Economic Opportunities in Indonesia.

 

11.00 – 11.30 Coffee break

 

 

11.30 – 13.15 Plenary Session 

 

Round table (Chapel)

Beyond Exoticism. how to Narrate South-East Asia to the Italian Public

 

Speakers: Giuseppe Gabusi, Ilaria Benini, Antonia Soriente and Silvia Vignato

 

 

 

 

13.15 – 13.30 Conference Closing (Chapel)

 

Prof. Elda Morlicchio, Rector of University of Naples “L’Orientale”

 

 

 

 

13.30 – 14.30 Lunch

 

 

 

 

The organizers of the 4th ItaSEAS Conference

Antonia Soriente (asoriente@unior.it) 

Pietro Masina (pmasina@unior.it)

Carmencita Palermo (cpalermo@unior.it)

 

 

University of Naples “L’Orientale"

 

http://www.unior.it/ateneo/19014/1/4th-itaseas-conference-2019.html

 

ABSTRACTS IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER




WEDNESDAY 22 MAY 2019


16.00 – 18.00 Parallel session 1


1A – From the colonial era to the Cold war (Chapel)


Natasha Pairaudeau (Cambridge University)  np405@cam.ac.uk

Borderland Conundrum: Kula Gem Mining at the Siamese-Indochinese frontier.

Several of Southeast Asia’s richest sources of rubies and sapphires lie in the borderlands between Thailand and the former protectorates of French Indochina. Pailin is in eastern Cambodia, Chantaburi is located not far across the border in South-western Thailand, and Huay Xai overlooks Thailand from the Lao bank in the northern reaches of the Mekong. The geological tendency for corundum--the crystalline form of aluminium oxide of which ruby and sapphire are two varieties— to be found in these border zones has been matched by a tendency around the late nineteenth century for men from the Shan States to arrive in search of it, and establish mines and mining settlements.

Shan miners came to Pailin from Burma’s Mogok Valley from the early 1880s; through their experience of mining Burma’s famous pigeon-blood rubies, they instigated a gem rush in what was then a part of eastern Siam. The miners were connected to long-distance traders from parts of Burma under British rule, who bought and sold goods across northern Siam. This mobile people were known collectively in Siam and Cambodia as kula or gula, literally “foreigner” in Burmese language. The label kula took on the force in the mines of a distinct socio-cultural identity. The miners though, in flight from political upheaval in the Shan States, were engaged in more complex, political processes of identity formation. It was not exactly the exactions of states that the kula were fleeing;  nor were they entirely insistent on practising the art of not being governed (Scott 2009).

Rather, as sometime mercenaries, rebels, patrons of projects of exile, and autarkic overlords of their own state-within-a state, they were susceptible to, and seeking out,  new political ways of being. Peripheries are by their nature defined as sites removed from centres of power, but Pailin has long been much more than a remote zone of refuge. The riches in its hills attracted people with state making projects of their own, as much as it did those fleeing states and state disorder. The success of these suitors contending for power at the periphery continued to rest on their ability to capture the kula miners’ labour, and thus the wealth in the hills: a true borderland conundrum.



Nicola Mocci (University of Sassari) –  nicolamocci@yahoo.it


Making Saigon Modern: the Tramway of Saigon and the Business of Public French Concessionaires.



Maurizio Peleggi (National University of Singapore) – hismp@nus.edu.sg

Archaeology and Ideology in Cold War Southeast Asia.  

Following the inauguration of Southeast Asian archaeology by officers-scholars in the employ of colonial powers, the Cold War paved the way for the activity of American archaeologists in client states such Thailand and The Philippines, and Soviet archaeologists in the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. Major excavations carried out in the late 1960s and early 1970s took place in militarized areas such as Thailand’s Northeast, host to several frontline facilities in the Indochina Wars, such as the airbases from where US planes took off on aerial bombing missions in North Vietnam and Cambodia. More than simply reflecting the political divisions of the Cold War, the shift in the region from French and British to American and Soviet archaeologists led to the rejection of the diffusionist paradigm of colonial archaeology, according to which India and China had implanted in Southeast Asia the seeds of cultural and technical development. The Neolithic and Bronze Age sites discovered in northern Vietnam were construed as evidence of the historicity, refuted by colonial scholars, of the earliest kingdoms chronicled in the Vietnamese annals. As for Thailand, findings from its Northeastern region, excavated at the peak of the Vietnam War, were initially hailed as evidence of a local Bronze Age older than, and independent from, China’s and second only to Mesopotamia’s. Besides the leading role of American and Soviet archaeologists in local excavations, young Thai and Vietnamese archaeologists benefited by scholarships that allowed them to receive training in the USA and the URSS, respectively. By rejecting colonial archaeology’s thesis of the foreign origins of Southeast Asian civilization, the revisionist view of the region’s early technical and socio-cultural development was too functional to the Cold War ideological objectives of the US and the Soviet Union, which, despite their antithetical positions, both sought to ground empirically postcolonial nations’ strive for self-empowerment as reflecting their long-standing history of political and cultural autonomy.



Guido Creta (University of Naples  “L’Orientale”) – guidocreta@gmail.com

The Events of 1965 in Indonesia: The Perspectives of the Italian Embassy.

The aim of this paper is to analyse the official reports of the Italian Embassy in Jakarta during the years 1965-1966 related to the so-called “September 30th Movement”. This "alleged" coup, which gave the start to one of the most terrible bloodbath of the 20th century,  remains until today an unsolved enigma, an historiographical puzzle. Although many sources have already been examined, several questions are still unanswered.

For this reason, I have tried to do my research from a peripheral perspective. The reports of the Italian Embassy in Jakarta,  in spite of the irrelevant position of Italy in the South-East Asia at that time, can be useful to cast doubt on the official version of the events created by the “New Order’s regime”. The ambassadors’ relation with the Indonesian establishment and their opinions about the facts help to reconsider, among other things the army’s role in the massacres. Moreover it allows to further explain the connivance of the West with the army’s interests.

The data used for the research entirely comes from the Diplomatic Archive of Farnesina in Rome.  First of all I will explore the relation between the embassy and Sukarno’s government. After that I will expose the position of the Italian Embassy on the alleged coup and his aftermath until the rise of Suharto’s regime on March, 11 1966. Another essential aspect will be to present the perception and knowledge of the Italian diplomacy about the massacres and the political repression in Indonesia.

Last but not least, I will examine the role and the interests of the Italian State in the developments of Indonesian economy. Indeed Italy was one of the seven members of the so-called "Tokyo Club", a group of states that claimed credits to the Indonesian government before 1965. In order to reorganize the payment of such debts, these above-mentioned states met first in Tokyo and then in Paris under the aegis of the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. Therefore we can observe how Italy played a role in this intricate conflict.

In conclusion, I will try to show the perspective, position and interests of the Italian State in the broader view of international context about the events of 1965 in Indonesia.



1b – Culture and tradition (Computer room)


Ilaria Meloni (Sapienza University of Rome) – ilaria.meloni89@gmail.com

Sindhen “jaman dulu” and sindhen “jaman now”: the Influence of the Cultural Politics on the Javanese Female Singing Tradition and its Transformations from the 18th Century until Nowadays.

The popularity and the diffusion of the Javanese female singers, sindhen or pesindhen, has been meeting a remarkable increase and a wide diffusion in the last decades, within various performative contexts, determining interesting changes in the traditional arts frameworks.

The female singing with gamelan, is a “refined” (alus) art that can be tracked down to the 18th century and it is attested as a courtly practice, born in the royal courts of Central Java (Surakarta and Yogyakarta). Despite the great amount of studies on Javanese gamelan music and performing arts, scholars have scarcely investigated the phenomenon of the development of this singing practice throughout the centuries and its social meanings (excerpts for Sutton 1984, 1989 and Walton 1987, 1996). According to the sources, before the 18th centuries the female performers didn’t used to sit down in gamelan orchestra but, rather, they used to exhibit around villages and cities in the guise of itinerant, often licentious, singer-dancers. During the 18th and 19th centuries, more and more female singer-dancers were hired in the courts and turned into refined gamelan vocalists, giving birth to a tradition of “celestial nymphs” that still is alive in the Javanese imaginary.

However, the ancient model of Javanese hyper-femininity and refinement embodied by the former courtly singers has changed throughout the eras facing the rapid development of the political system, the social environment and the new audience demand.

Basing on my years of fieldwork and performance as a foreigner female sindhen, and comparing the outcomes of the interviews, I could notice the discrepancy existing between the so called sindhen jaman dulu (female singers of the past century) and the very recent phenomenon of the sindhen jaman now (female singers of the current century).

In this paper I highlight the most significative moments for the development of the female singing practice and I discuss how a musical practice can reflect the cultural and political changing in a society in which the performing arts are strictly connected with dynamics of power and highly intertwined with people’s everyday life.



Eva Rapoport (Mahidol University) – eva.rapoport@gmail.com

How Spirits Democratize Arts: A Case of Javanese Folk Trance Dance.

Indonesian cultural policies have been always characterized by the great attention and support for traditional arts. However, it can as well be perceived as a way to manage those as a pure culture, while minimizing all the elements related to archaic beliefs, rituals or carnivalesque practices. Thus, said support also implies control and most likely reformulation, while institutionalized system of education sets a high threshold for becoming and/or being recognized as a performer.

But there is an art form quite successful in evading all these limitations.

Kuda kepang is a folk trance dance combining elements of ritual and entertainment. Performances are generally held for communal or family celebrations where everyone is welcome to join the audience. Performing groups constitute self-sustainable (on the profits from the performances) family-like communities, the members of which tend to spend time together and to certain extent help and support each other.

Most of the practitioners emphasize that the main requirement for joining their group might be nothing else but a good relationship with its existing members. So, there is no special background or qualification required to master the dance. Everyone is expected to be able to do it, as almost every person (with some rare exceptions) is capable of experiencing trance.

Trance is believed to be caused by spirit possession and it is exactly what contributes to excitement and awe of every performance. Entranced dancers demonstrate all kinds of unpredictable, wild, unruly or animal-like behaviour – which is especially striking in the context of Javanese society that has always prized emotional reservation and ability to maintain harmony. Entranced dancers can also demonstrate feats of physical invulnerability (eating shuttered glass being the most iconic of those) – the ability granted them by the spirits acting through their bodies.



Luigi Monteanni (University of Bologna) –  monteannilu@gmail.com

How they Behave and how you should not Behave: Kasenian Réak, the Sundanese Horse Trance Dance.

Jaranan, the Javanese horse trance dance, is a particular branch of trance performances for entertainment born on the island of Java, Indonesia, during the historical period dated between 300 B.C. to 800 A.D. All dances are staged by artistic groups, involving simple and more or less improvised choreographies performed by entranced men guided by a Pawang, a figure similar, but different, to the one of the shaman.

 

Since its alleged original form, the dance Jaran Breng of East Java, is known to have spread all over the eastern and central part of the island and to have been practiced also in Bali. However, it has developed in different forms according to the local and specific cultural background of the geographical areas they are practiced in. Famous versions of the dance are Kuda Kepang, Reog Ponorogo, and Jathilan, on which a good amount of literature has been produced by anthropologists and cultural scientists focused on Javanese mysticism and performance.

 

Despite all this, almost nothing, except a few BA and MA theses by Indonesian students and an article by Randal Baier dated 1986, has been written about one of Jaranan’s latest evolutions and most recent versions: Kasenian Réak, the Sundanese horse trance dance.

 

The Sundanese of West Java, the second biggest ethnic group in Indonesia after the Javanese, the last to have surrendered to the overall conquest by the Muslim states and their subsequent conversion, hold very different spiritual, symbolical and philosophical conceptions and values compared to their neighbors the Javanese. Thus, even if they’re still inside the boundaries that delineate the main features of this particular group of performances, they have generated a very different performance in terms of style, meaning, and function.

 

In this paper, drawing from one year research in Bandung and West Java among réak groups located in different Kabupaten (Regencies), my intention is to describe my findings regarding the phenomenon of Kasenian Réak. In particular, I will try to explain how Kasenian Réak works as a transformative and performative device, that can be interpreted as the result of a dialogic interaction between the works by Giorgio Agamben, Gilles Deleuze, and Michel Foucault on the subject.

 

The performance does not only codify experience but also produces meaning that influences the behaviour of the involved individuals. In particular, kasenian réak allows actors to face and overcome fundamental transformative individual and social processes in the form of social therapy. It becomes a space to disclose disruptive and normally unacceptable feelings and behaviours, to allow an agreement between opposite dimensions, the visible and the invisible, the alive and the dead, the world of humans and the world of spirits and finally represents a rite of passage from puberty to adulthood that enables the effective membership of a member in the muslim community.

 

From this perspective, both experience and meaning are seen as the superimposition of personal existential experience in terms of a local moral world. In other words the individual’s construction of reality is mediated by his local social world (a neighbourhood, a village, a hospital, a network of practitioners and so on) over the hegemonic historical discourse.

 


Inda Grossi (University of Bologna) – inda.grossi@hotmail.it

Spiritual Healing Techniques in Bali: Research among Siwa Murti Balian.

I wrote my Master’s thesis on spiritual healing techniques in Bali. At the heart of my analysis are the balian, the traditional healers of Bali.

My work is the result of field research conducted within an association of balian called Siwa Murti Bali, which I began in 2016. In 2017 I was awarded the Darmasiswa scholarship, which allowed me to deepen my interest in Siwa Murti spiritual healing and to collect mixed media resources, including interviews, photos and videos. Another important source of information for my thesis research has been reading and translating a book Spiritual Healing: Siwa Sakti Energy, written by the founder of the association, part of which I include in the appendix of my thesis.

The Siwa Murti healing technique is just one of the many forms of traditional healing in Bali, where there is the widespread belief that illness can be caused by an imbalance between sekala, the human and seen world, and niskala, the supernatural and magic world. Balian know how to interpret the niskala signs and cure related illnesses through spiritual therapies and cleansing rituals. Their knowledge is based on the cosmological principles of Balinese Hinduism, Agama Hindu Dharma. In fact, the religious, philosophical and ethical concepts, that regulate the life of all Balinese hindus, such as karma and dharma, are central to the balian’s practices.


In this respect, the primary role of Siwa Murti balian is removing the evil-eye caused by black magic. The traditional healers belonging to this organization use the cosmic and sacred energy sakti to heal patients affected by pain and illness that can’t be remedied or explained by biomedical  science. Siwa Murti’s final aim is to improve not only the holistic health of individuals, but also the collective well-being of the community.

Besides analysing Siwa Murti healing practices, I also consider the social and political factors that produce and legitimize their techniques, which gained public recognition on the island through the social services they offer to the Balinese population. A final key point of my research is the transformative process that both patients and healers experience.




THURSDAY 23 MAY


9.30 – 11.30 Parallel session 2

2a – Politics (Chapel)


Tomas Larsson (University of Cambridge) thl33@cam.ac.uk

Royal succession and the politics of religious purification in contemporary Thailand.

Since the 2014 military coup ruling political elites in Thailand have been engaged in a variety of initiatives aimed at reforming the relationship between the Thai state and the Buddhist sangha. These efforts have been dramatically intensified in the wake of the passing of King Bhumiphon (Rama IX) in October 2016 and the subsequent ascension to the throne by his son, Vajiralongkorn (Rama X). Through a variety of means in in a number of different arenas, the Thai state--and the new king--have asserted their power and control over the ecclesiastical realm. The related developments may be viewed as part of a conservative backlash against more "liberal" approaches to religion-state relations that had been initiated in the 1990s. More specifically, they constitute attempts to generate religious legitimacy for the military junta and the new king by "purifying" religion in ways that re-enact pre-modern scripts of righteous Buddhist kingship. Paradoxically, this is done, in part, by seeking to introduce modern notions of good governance and transparency into the administration of the Sangha and its (extensive) material assets. This paper assesses whether the reform efforts of the new reign signify a more fundamental transformation of sangha-state relations, with implications for religious and other liberties in Thailand.



Jayeel S. Cornelio (Ateneo de Manila University) jcornelio@ateneo.edu

Christianity and Duterte’s War on Drugs in the Philippines.

The War on Drugs defines Rodrigo Duterte’s presidency in the Philippines. Although thousands have been killed since 2016, it continues to enjoy strong public support. How does Christianity respond? This question is pertinent given that religion has played a prominent role as a civil society actor in the country. The study interrogates how leaders of various Christian groups frame the War on Drugs in Payatas, an urban poor hotspot. Our argument is that the way a religious community responds to the War on Drugs is heavily informed by how it understands the nature of the drug user. They are either sinful human beings or victims of wider social injustices such as poverty. Many religious leaders view them as sinners whose ‘wickedness’ and criminal acts need to be eradicated. Towards the end of the article, we explain this distinction and suggest that the dominant view that drug users are sinners hints at an implicit religious underpinning for the popular support for the War on Drugs.



Lucrezia Canzutti (Newcastle University) – lucrezia.canzutti@newcastle.ac.uk

From Friends to Liability: Vietnam’s shifting relations with the Vietnamese diaspora in Cambodia.

“Đoàn kết đoàn kết đại đoàn kết,

thành công thành công đại thành công”


“Unity, unity, great unity

Success, success, great success”

- Ho Chi Minh, 1961


During the Vietnam War, President Ho Chi Minh used the slogan above to call on Vietnamese people to unite and fight against the common enemy. More than fifty years later, his words have become a cornerstone of the CPV’s (Communist Party of Vietnam) party rhetoric, but with a substantially different aim. The main change has concerned the meaning of “success”, which has shifted from “military” success to the imperative of economic growth. The target of the slogan has also changed since (and, partly, as a consequence of) the war, and it now includes members of “the great family of the Vietnamese nation” at home and abroad.

Recently, Ho Chi Minh’s rhetoric of national unity has in fact been used to rekindle the SRV’s (Socialists Republic of Vietnam) strained relations with overseas Vietnamese, the majority of whom are former opponents of the communist regime and live in Western host-countries where they have acquired valuable skills and wealth. The latter represent an important resource to the developing homeland, which has tried to harness them through a number of engagement strategies and policies. These policies have been at the centre of several studies which have highlighted Vietnam’s shifting perception of overseas Vietnamese (also known as Việt Kiều) from “foes” to “friends”.

Whilst certainly relevant, the aforementioned studies have focused exclusively on former war refugees, ignoring a conspicuous portion of overseas Vietnamese who did not flee the war and does not live in developed Western states. The present article aims to fill this gap in the literature by analysing Vietnam’s relationship with overseas Vietnamese in Cambodia. The paper demonstrates that the Politburo currently views these Vietnamese as an inconvenience. Yet, given its inclusive stance towards the diaspora at large, the group’s past role as Vietnam’s “fifth column” in the Kingdom, and the challenges it currently faces in Cambodia, the Politburo cannot wash its hands of the neighbouring diaspora. It follows that the SRV continues to symbolically embrace these Vietnamese as “an integral part of the Vietnamese nation” whilst discouraging their physical “return” to Vietnam. This stance stands in stark contrast with the policies targeting overseas Vietnamese in developed states, who are regularly invited to return and contribute to the development of the homeland. Thus, in the same way as it has revisited its position on former “traitors”, the Politburo has adapted its relationship with former “friends” of the regime to the demands of a globalised world.



Silvia Vignato (University of Milano Bicocca) – silvia.vignato@unimib.it

Unplanned pregnancies, moralities and the outset of BPJS in Aceh, Indonesia.




2b – Literature and art (Library)


Manneke Budiman (Universitas Indonesia) – manneke.budiman@ui.ac.id

Writing Technology and the Return of Orality in Contemporary Indonesian Novels.

With the advent of digital technologies, it is tempting to assume that orality is doomed forever—a process that already began as soon as literacy was introduced by printing technology and writing underwent a revolutionary process of technologization. However, the new digital technology turns out to produce other kinds of impact that help revive elements of orality rather than accelerate its death. The last three years, literary devices that characteristically belong to oral tradition have re-emerged in some Indonesian novels. This occurs in parallel with the increasing visibility of orality’s features in ICT-based gadgets that provide a wide array of emojis or emoticons used for creating the phatic effect into users’ communication. In the novels Kiat Sukses Hancur Lebur (Martin Suryajaya, 2016), Raden Mandasia Si Pencuri Daging Sapi (Yusi Avianto Pareanom, 2016) and Kura-Kura Berjanggut (Azhari Aiyub, 2018), orality appears in the forms such as unreliable narrators, sub-plots that divert the stories from the main plots, protagonists that  swear a lot and allow themselves to be the laughingstock of the other characters, or the frequent interruptions of the narrative by direct narrator’s comments. Such strategies produce a strong effect upon the reader as if they were listening to a story being told rather than reading fiction. Thus, the advancement of technologies has brought about the return of orality into writing instead of killing it once and for all.


Soleman Karmani (University of Hamburg)Eman.karmani@gmail.com

The Interplay between Religious Practice and Socio-cultural Understanding In Indonesian Literature

A Literary Analysis on Short Story: Pohon-Pohon yang Dibunuh Oleh Tim Doa (A Short Story of West Timorese Culture and Society).

This study discusses the interplay among religious practice (Christianity), cultural and social understanding towards environmental awareness and poverty in West Timorese contemporary society. To see this issue, this work is based on the short story “Pohon-Pohon yang dibunuh oleh Tim Doa” (2017) by Dicky Senda. The significance of this literature is the look of social context of contemporary society in West Timor literature in terms of understanding the environmental crisis and poverty. Indeed the role of religion in many practices has shaped the culture and social understanding positively. However, the problem of poverty eradication in West Timor society contextually is still on the debate. The influence of religious practice in particular extent mirrors sceptical evidences. This fictional story reflects the reality of society in which predominantly shaped by Christianity´s value.

Identifying such potential issues through this fictional story, it is limited by tools of analysis which are compatible with the context of the literature in West Timorese culture. This study uses four elements of literature as the method namely figurative language, setting, imagery and point of view. Based on the result, this analysis depicts two arguments. First, contribution of religious practice (Christianity) in West Timorese contemporary society towards social and cultural understanding on environmental sustainability has a destructive implication. Second, lack of environmental awareness causes the poverty. As a part of Indonesia, this literature gives other picture of West Timorese society in terms of understanding the problem of poverty which is a big social issue. Another implication is, the environmental crisis as a global issue can be captured from this case study to understand how the interplay between religious and socio-cultural practice shaping the mental of local society.



Luigi Sausa (University of Naples “L’Orientale”) – luigi.sausa@gmail.com

Galau, Comics in Translation: Translation Process and Pragmatic Equivalence in Indonesian-Italian Translation of Galauman and Argyre Comic.

This contribute deals with the problematics of Indonesian-Italian jokes in comics translation given their inherent particular communicative nature inclined to violate the maxims of Grice’s principle of cooperation.

I aim to investigate Indonesian-italian translation strategies of linguistic and cultural humorous utterances related to slang and polysemous words in ‘Galauman’ and ‘Argyre’ comics (yet to be published).

I applied a qualitative descriptive methodology where the researcher, been also the translator, analyzes the translation strategies applied to translate the source text (ST) into a pragmatically equivalent target text (TT), violating or not the cooperative principle. I pay particular attention to the problematics encountered during the translation process, focusing on word-plays and the polysemous term ‘galau’ which agreeing with A. Kevin (2016) and KBBI (2015) ‘means busy abuzz (sibuk beramai-ramai)’. In modern Indonesian it seems to be used in a very different way and it is often translated as confused, anxious, gloomy,  indecisive, feeling blue, lovesick, downhearted. The results show that this term is connected to a wide variety of jokes and implicatures that play different roles on different levels. On the comic conversational level it brings about a semantic set of meanings but a different one on the (Indonesian) reader’s mind triggering what Raskin (1985) calls ‘alternative script on the semantic level of comprehension’ therefore enabling a particular humorous text identifiable as a ‘joke’. The comic text, an inseparable body of written text embedded in drawn images, on the reader-character level seems to satisfy Grice’s cooperative principle and at the same time can be seen as non-cooperative on the inter-characters level. This intertwined word-play is both linguistic humor since it plays its ambivalence with the name of the main character of the comic and cultural humor since it delivers a wide set of pop and juvenescent uses of the term. In the TT the term was often literally translated, depending on the context, failing to convey the humorous intended meaning disappointing the Italian reader. I conclude that the term galau in Italian TT cannot respect ST implicatures been understood and humoristic at the same time whereas its humorous power lies on its semantic complexity poorly reflected in Italian. Other examples show how translation techniques, specifically adaptation, compensation and variation, were used extensively at the expense of more literal ones, in order not to fail in transferring  the aesthetical aspects of humorous utterances. These techniques are used (to deal with the highly pragmatic force of the Indonesian language which Italian does not possess , in texts where space and visual play a fundamental role.

In a sense, by submitting their agency to the spirits, dancers actually gain one in becoming performers as such, despite their most likely unfulfilling jobs and low level of education and social standing, as kuda kepang is the most popular with the low-income villagers and urbanites.

The purpose of this presentation is to consider kuda kepang not just as an archaic art form surviving and even thriving nowadays but for its more universal value: as a practice creating communities and producing meaning – all in the sphere of leisure time in a post-scarcity economy.



Carmencita Palermo (University of Naples “L’Orientale”) cpalermo@unior.it

About Women by Women: Community Performance and the Voicing the Heroic.

Kadek Sonia Piscayanti comes from Singaraja, north Bali, Indonesia. She describes herself first of all as a mother, then as a writer, a theatre director and a lecturer. This paper will recount the journey of Piscayanti’s project funded by the Ford Foundation: “11 Mothers, 11 Stages, 11 Stories”. The project was inspired by social media bullying which followed the case of a woman murdering her own children and then attempting suicide. Piscayanti felt the need to create a safe circle where women could talk and be listened to, a space for true dialogue where women could place value on their own voices and overcome the silence of abuse and violence. Piscayanti has written 11 monologues from 11 personal stories and staged them in 11 houses, the women’s own houses. The intimate and relatively simple performances watched by university students, family members and neighbours unveil the complexity of the social and economic structures which normally make it impossible to even share women’s concerns. In her work, women from very diverse backgrounds find their voices: a construction worker, an English teacher, a poet, a fashion designer, a traditional dancer, a beauty salon owner, a tarot reader, a psychologist, a university dean, a housekeeper, and a doctor. Through the performances their multiple voices become one. In a second phase of the project those multiples voices became also a single performance interpreted by young women directed by Piscayanti.

This project , which is well documented on-line,  provides insights about women in Bali and in the world.



Antonia Soriente (University of Naples “L’Orientale”) asoriente@unior.it

Roles, morality and criticism of women in Indonesian Literature: some case studies.




12.00 – 13.30 Parallel session 3

3a – ASEAN and regional integration (Chapel)


Sophie Boisseau du Rocher (Center for Asian Studies, IFRI) – boisseaudurocher@gmail.com

ASEAN’s challenged centrality.

Since the early 2000ies, leaders of ASEAN member countries have consistently proclaimed and promoted  the bloc’s “centrality” in the guidance, mitigation, and mediation of regional issues, mostly in the diplomatic and security realms. Yet, even if this centrality looks natural on a geographic scale, it doesn’t guarantee its legitimacy. Developments behind the scene show how it is challenged.

To host the most meaningful official multilateral forums in the region is not a sufficient condition. The Association is still much divided on very sensitive issues such as the South China Sea disputes, or the Sino-US tensions. Indeed, on many grounds, the region is not sufficiently politically unified to be central. Its cultural and political diversity doesn’t help. The pressure of great power competition is another complicating factor.

ASEAN is still arguing about its much vaunted centrality and may be the recent Indo-Pacific concept could work on its side. But to be considered as a decisive actor in the new game, ASEAN has to come up with a vision for the future and a consequent coherent strategy.



David Camroux (Sciences Po, CERI / Vietnam National University of Hanoi)  david.camroux@sciencespo.fr

Liberal Democracy/ Electoral Authoritarianism in Southeast Asia and ASEAN’s’ Collective Norms.

In the ASEAN Charter, which came into force in December 2008, the “strengthening of democracy” is listed 7th amongst 15 purposes and adherence to the principles of democracy is again listed 7th amongst 14 principles.  This low priority would seem to reflect, not only the collective choice of the 10 ASEAN members, but also the reality in individual ASEAN member states.  In the 2017 edition of the Economist Intelligence Unit’s Democracy Index, four of the ten ASEAN members were characterized as Flawed Democracies, one (Thailand) was classified as having a hybrid regime and five (if Brunei is added) as being authoritarian. Can this only be explained by domestic dynamics in individual member states? Or is there something in the collective project, developed and articulated by the Association itself that comforts this regime norm? This historically grounded paper is built on a reinterpretation of the ASEAN narrative – both prior to an since the Association’s foundation - and seeks to determine to what extent the ASEAN praxis of consensus around the lowest common denominator has made the illiberal democracy / electoral authoritarianism the de facto regime norm in Southeast Asia.



Marissa Maricosa A. Paderon (Ateneo de Manila University) – mpaderon@ateneo.edu

Regional Economic Integration of the EU and ASEAN.

This paper examines whether regional economic integration of ASEAN and the EU has increased their respective intra-regional trade; and to verify whether the economies of ASEAN and the EU are natural trading partners themselves or not. Using the frameworks of regional trade intensity and trade complementarity indices, the findings indicate that economic integration of the EU and ASEAN seems beneficial for member economies in terms of trade as evidenced by the higher regional trade intensity indices. In terms of trade complementarity, there exists higher trade complementarity between the EU 15 and lesser trade complementarity among the last entrants. The same is true for the ASEAN, where greater trade complementarity is observed among the ASEAN-5. The paper thus concludes that trade complementarity among members of any regional trading bloc is necessary to achieve a closer economic integration.





3b – Society and Economic Challenges (Computer room)


Leonardo A. Lanzona, Jr (Ateneo de Manila University) –  llanzona@ateneo.edu

Households and Communities: Factors Affecting Demand for Justice of Drug War Survivors Under a Repressive Regime.

The War on Drugs of the Duterte Administration in the Philippines exposes a pattern of unlawful police conduct designed to paint a veneer of legality over extrajudicial executions that may amount to crimes against humanity. Under extreme repression where perpetrators operate with impunity, affected households are reintegrated into communities with the help of several (mostly religious) institutions to cope with everyday socio-economic constraints. The reintegration of household victims thus forms part of a particularly complex process of recovery and development, as communities are also naturally involved as part of the cause of this repression.  The focus is on the search for justice by families who have suffered directly such human rights violations and who now face the burden of meeting their basic needs.


The argument is that community institutions play a crucial role in the affected households’ demand for justice. While various civil society organizations have extended their support, the search for justice remains elusive, and the culture of impunity remains unless the community institutions are reformed to directly assist these households.   The paper will model the impact of community variables using a stochastic model in which the welfare of the households, including their demand for justice is dependent on community and household characteristics. Households under an oppressive drugs’ policy are affected by three main factors: (1) community, reflecting the increased probability to disenfranchisement immediately after a person with whom one associates has been victimized, (2) a seasonal factor that reflects the persistent rate of drug operations conducted by the authorities (e.g., the current drug war deaths and the number of arrest in the communities), and (3) a set of specific household characteristics affecting the households. The model highlights the importance of community support in addressing the atmosphere of repression.   



Dwi Winarsih (La Rochelle Université France) – dwi.winarsih@univ-lr.fr

The Government’s Effort to Integrate Middlemen with Formal Markets Mechanism: a Case Study of the Indonesian Commodity Auction Market.

The agricultural market and trade in Indonesia is largely characterized by the importance of the informal institution and the strong social network and relationships. The market is structured by the multilayer distribution system that often raises some opinions related to an inefficient long market chain and reinforce negative perception of a market agent role as middlemen. The issues related to an inefficient long market channel and negative perception of middlemen are used by the Indonesian government for regulating and intervening in the agricultural market, including establishing the regional auction market, namely the Indonesian Commodity Auction Market (ICAM), in 2003. In this alternative market infrastructure, the government introduces an auction mechanism to improve market efficiency in terms of fair and transparent price formation. ICAM is an example of the government’s approach to create a structured mechanism of the existing informal intermediation practices, in order to protect farmers from exploitation by middlemen.


This paper seeks to address the following questions: how the position of this government structured mechanism among the others market institution in the Indonesian agricultural market and whether the formal mechanism in the form of ICAM was an appropriate government market intervention considering the characteristic of the Indonesian agricultural market in general. To attempt to answer the questions I do first an overview of Indonesia agricultural market in general especially the market in Java. I complete then with the data of field observation in Central of Java. This part is important as the starting point to build an analytical framework and the foundation of the subject of implementation of ICAM. I analyze the context market microstructure of the ICAM and the characteristics of the Indonesian agricultural market in general, especially with the dominant of intermediary agent in the market, using the theoretical framework of agricultural marketing paradigm and the intermediary’s theory. In doing so, I develop the market context of Indonesia agricultural market in general where the ICAM is implemented. I then focus the policy question concerning the implementation of this state centralized market institution. I study the efficiency of ICAM implementation by focusing to identify the characteristics of market participants and the trading procedures adopted. The study shows that the ICAM organization should simplify the market rules and procedures to compete with other market institution, either formal or informal.



Manoj Potapohn & Nuttha Potapohn (Chiang Mai University) –  potapohnm@gmail.com

A Survey of Flower Markets in Thailand and Southeast Asia.

It has been unclear when and how rose was first grown for the cut flowers market in Thailand but historically and even until todays, highland of northern Thailand and in particular those surrounding the city of Chiang Mai was and is important production site for fresh cut roses and other temperate ornamental plants in Thailand’s market. Temperate crops were promoted as opium replacement crops and a marketing arrangement that links hill-tribers’ production to consumers of cut flowers in the city took off while Thailand experience its booming economy from 1980s (market reform) to 1997 (economic crisis) and politically was the frontier of liberalized world order. Since then the industry has been through tremendous transformations. Focusing largely on roses and chrysanthemum, this study seeks to hypothesize how Thailand flower industry has evolved over the past few decades in conjunction to markets in neighboring countries, i.e. Laos (Vientiane, Champasak, Luang Prabang) and Vietnam (Da Lat) Myanmar (Yangon). Then it is put into regional perspective with China (Kunming) and Japan (Tokyo’s Ota market). Substantive drivers of interest are spillovers of horticulture production technology, improved road network and communication technology, consumption changes and market liberalization within ASEAN.




3c – Languages and Linguistics (Library)


Sander Adelaar (University of Melbourne) – s.adelaar@unimelb.edu.au

South Borneo as an ancient Sprachbund area.

In South Borneo there are some unusual linguistic features shared among languages that are adjacent but do not belong to the same genetic microgroups. These languages are Banjar Malay (a Malayic language), Ngaju (West Barito) and Maanyan (South East Barito). The same features also appear in Malagasy. They include the following ones:


Ngaju buah ’hit, affected’  and Ma’anyan wuah ‘1. affected, hit; 2. correct, hitting the mark’ are function words. Malagasy vua has the same meaning as Ma’anyan wuah, and vua- is a verbal prefix indicating that an activity was carried out successfully. These words (and prefix) do not reflect Proto Malayo-Polynesian *buaq ‘fruit’ but were borrowed from Banjar Malay. The latter has buah which means ‘fruit’ but also became a function word indicating that some activity was successful (Indonesian berhasil).


Both Ngaju and Ma’anyan exhibit “nasal spread”: if the initial consonant of a word with an intermediate y becomes nasalised, this y as a rule also becomes nasalised and changes into ny, e.g. prefixation of N- to the Ma’anyan root wayat yields manyat ‘to pay’. In Malagasy, nasal spread has usually become invisible because of subsequent changes but is still detectable in certain roots. In Banjar Malay the phenomenon appears in some isolated cases but it never became regular.


In Ma’anyan, historical *s became h in all positions of the word, e.g *sungay ‘river’ became hungey, *asiq ‘love’ became ahi, *lawas ‘long time’ became lawah. This change also applies to Ngaju but not to *s at the beginning of a word. In Malagasy the same change took place but s was re-introduced already already very early onwards through Malay influence. In Banjar Malay the change happened frequently but not regularly, e.g. *so’al ‘question’ became hual, *sampai ‘until’ became hampai.


The fact that these features are also shared with Malagasy gives us an indication of the time depth involved in their origin and spread, as contacts between the peoples of South Borneo and Malagasy speakers were severed when the latter migrated to East Africa some 13 centuries ago. It shows us that already before that time there must have been close contacts among the various ethnic groups in the Barito region (including the Malagasy) and between these groups and the Malay metropole.



Dawid M. Gajewski (University of Pavia) –  gajewskidm@gmail.com

Javanese influence on Indonesian person deixis in Central Java.

The Indonesian language is known to have a fairly complex, open system (Flannery, 2010) of person deixis. On the one hand Indonesian possesses a number of personal pronouns (with High-Low register distinction), while on the other hand this system does not seem to satisfy the needs of the speakers given the way the politeness is encoded in the language. Therefore, Indonesians make use of other person references such as personal names, terms of fictive kinship (sometimes referred to as pronoun substitutes, cf. Dardjowidjojo, 1978) and, as this study shows, terms borrowed from other local languages (in this case Javanese). Moreover, it has been noted that in certain contexts also demonstratives such as ini (‘this’) and sini or situ (‘here’ and ‘there’, respectively) might be used.

One of key characteristics of the usage of person deixis in Indonesian is its asymmetry (see: McGinn, 1991), i.e. for instance, a person of higher social status will use the Low register pronoun with an interlocutor of a lower status, and the response they are going to receive will make use of a High register pronoun. Although this is not the only scheme followed by the speakers, the scholars count up to 10 possible models (ibid.) of such alternations.

It has been observed that conversations held in Indonesian are heavily influenced by the local language, and Javanese kinship terms, as well as personal pronouns are used. This study aims to show the ways in which various people are addressed in a predominantly Javanese environment, in Surakarta, Central Java. The study includes a presentation of person-reference forms in both Indonesian and Javanese as well as all the person-reference elements encountered during the fieldwork, attempting an explanation of the sociolinguistic context for their usage. Special attention will be given to a smaller set of data regarding conversations held in Indonesian between Indonesians and foreigners as it illustrates the avoidance principles underlying the encoding of politeness in Java in situations where standard conventions are difficult to apply.



Patrizia Pacioni (SOAS, University of London) – pp6@soas.ac.uk

On Some Multifunctional Particles in Khmer.

Khmer has a host of particles that play an important role in the morphosyntax of the language, such

particles are often multifunctional. Although the occurrences of these particles have been reported in various grammars and manuals (Jacob 1968, Huffman 1970 a. o.) not much attention has been given to show how they actually interplay in the grammar. In this work I set out to investigate some of those particles by analyzing their co-occurrences in various contexts in order to shed light on their possible common ground.


The particle te: can have a interrogative role as in:

Sophi: pisa: barɛj te:?

Sophi: smoke cigarettes te:

‘Sophi smokes cigarettes?’


Although te: is also part of Khmer split negation, as in:

Khɲɔm mɨn pisa: barɛj te:

I neg smoke cigarettes te:

‘I do not smoke cigarettes’


Nɨŋ is another multifunctional particle; when it occurs between two nouns it can acts either as

conjunction, as in:

Barɛi nɨŋ ca:fe:

Baɛj nɨŋ ca:fe:’

‘Cigarettes and coffee’


or as instrumental preposition -like ‘with’-, as in:

Cou twe: kliə nɨŋ pieq nih

Let’s make sentence nɨŋ speech this

‘Make a sentence with this word’


When nɨŋ occurs before a verb conveys future meaning, as in:

Khɲɔm nɨŋ tɤw

I nɨŋ go

‘I will go’


Nɨŋ and te: can also occur together expressing negative future, as in:

Khɲɔm nɨŋ mɨn tɤw te:

I nɨŋ neg go te:

‘I will not go’


As it can be seen from the examples above, these particles can appear at the nominal or verbal level

as well as at the sentence level. I shall also discuss why such multifunctionality cannot be explained

by homonymy. Only some of these particles belong to different registers, while others have been in

use in language for centuries.



14.30 – 16.30 Parallel session 4



4a – Economic Regional Integration and Labour (Chapel)


Evelyn Shyamala Devadason, (University of Malaya) –   evelyns@um.edu.my

A Revisit of State Policies Related to Immigrants and Labour Market Outcomes in Malaysia.

State policies in Malaysia have been considered to be partially effective in regulating and managing labour inflows (ILO, 2016; Devadason and Chan, 2014; Kanapathy, 2001; Pillai, 1995; World Bank, 1995). At the heart of the current policy debate, is also the failure of national labour laws in the protection of the rights of workers (Basu, 2017). Following which, there are calls for Malaysia to align its (immigrant) labour policies with labour market demands due to the over-dependence of the manufacturing sector on unskilled immigrants. Despite of the use of direct price restrictions and other labour-market related policies to control the influx of migrants, there is no clear indication of how these policy instruments have influenced labour market outcomes in the country, namely labour demand and labour standards. The approach taken in this paper is that national policies, may have increased employment opportunities for immigrants, while immigrants in turn may have played a role as “transmitter” of (lower) labour rights.  The paper therefore has a two-pronged objective. First, it estimates industry-level employment in manufacturing, paying special attention to the role of the levy system, to provide an outlook on labour market administration. Second, it identifies the dilution of key aspects of labour rights and standards (labour relations; working terms and conditions; discrimination in respect of employment) for the unskilled group, and assesses the state of reforms in labour-related policies in aligning with international requirements. For this purpose, the study employs a mixed-method approach, combining both quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative analysis of employment-related functions is based on a new constructed panel data set of 23 manufacturing industries for the 1985 to 2015 period. The qualitative analysis consolidates information through interviews conducted with several stakeholders (trade unions, activist groups, non-governmental organizations and industry associations). The findings of study and the unique experience of Malaysia will then be used to forward some implications for national policies in dealing with employment and labour standards.


Acknowledgement: The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union H2020 Framework Programme CP-2016-under grant agreement n°770562 (IF002AB-2018).




Pietro Masina (University of Naples “L’Orientale”) – pmasina@unior.it

Semi-industrialization and precarious work in Southeast Asia: evidence from Indonesia and Vietnam.



Raimondo Neironi, (Catholic University of the Sacred Heart, Milan) – RaimondoMaria.Neironi@unicatt.it

From the Co-Prosperity sphere to a win-win situation? Southeast Asia and the impact on Japan’s economic recovery after the World War II, 1945-1960.

This proposal intends to examine the role of the newly independent Southeast Asian states on Japan’s economic recovery after the World War II. Japan’s economic success had indeed a history of deep involvement in Southeast Asia, dating back to the beginning of the Pacific War. Before Japan engendered a though conflict in the area, Southeast Asia was part of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere and it was depicted as the ultimate objective by the Japanese military for national and security ambitions. During the post-war period, Tokyo handled the disastrous consequences of its action under the occupation of the then uncontested dominant power, the United States. This proposal argues Japan’s economic recovery would have proceeded slowly without guaranteeing to their enterprises access to raw materials and markets of Southeast Asia. Japan needed a large amount of coal from Indochina, timber from Philippines, tin and rubber from British Malaya, and oil from Indonesia. Viceversa, Southeast Asian states needed the finished goods and industrial assistance from Japan. Along this interpretive line, it is worth referring to decolonisation process erupted in Southeast Asia starting from 1945, as it helps grasp the underlying strategy of Japan’s governments. Some Japanese officials undertook dialogue with China in the latest 1940s to cooperate on trade mutually, but most American planners in Tokyo considered closer ties with Communist China a threat to Japanese national security and to the ideological and political framework erected in San Francisco in 1951. At last, Washington prompted Tokyo to relinquish the choice for Communist China and suggested to enhance economic cooperation with Southeast Asian states. At the beginning of the 1950s, the Japanese government launched a set of economic initiatives to improve relations with the old occupied territories on new basis than the past. In 1957, Premier Nobusuke Kishi unfolded the Asian Development Fund. Such an arrangement did not only work to boost multilateral trade and encourage investments, but also it aimed at countering increasing Communist influence in Southeast Asia. This proposal encompasses both international and diplomatic history and Cold War studies. Apart from both secondary academic sources and the Foreign Relations of the United States, research can count on a vast array of diplomatic records collecting from the National Archives of College Park (U.S.) and the National Archive of Kew (U.K.). This proposal forms a part of doctoral thesis, that I will defend by next June, regarding the U.S. contribution to regionalism in Southeast Asia during the 1960s.



Giacomo Tabacco (University of Naples  “L’Orientale” &niversity of Milano Bicocca)giacomo.ta@gmail.com

Infrastructural assemblages, appropriations and failures in two atypical Indonesian Special Economic Zones; Batam and Lhokseumawe.

In this paper, I will explore the material and social articulations that existing and planned infrastructures imply in hybrid production centers in the Indonesian borderlands. Recent anthropological scholarship sheds light on how diverse infrastructures (factories, power plants, pipelines, fertilizers, State subsidies, and policies governing land) enable different subjects to gather their promises and aspirations, the pasts and futures in novel ways. Building upon my ongoing ethnography of work in the manufacturing center of Batam and the resource-rich region of Lhokseumawe (Aceh), I will analyze the socio-economic and natural transition through the lens of infrastructures, and address the following questions. What is the nexus between work imaginaries, cosmopolitan ideas, and infrastructures? What are the embedded power relations and infrastructures’ symbolic or spectacular dimensions? What is the aftermath of infrastructural failures?



4b – Travels and Navigations (Library)


Jillian Louise Melchor (University of the Philippines Diliman) – melchorjillian@gmail.com

Accounts of ’Placelessness’ from the Philippine Islands in Antonio Pigafetta’s Relazione del primo viaggio intorno al mondo and Giovanni Francesco Gemelli Careri’s Giro del mondo. Vol. 5: Isole Filippine.

Almost two hundred years after Antonio Pigafetta had written his famed account of Ferdinand Magellan’s expedition that led to European “discovery” of the Philippine islands, another Italian traveler reached the shores of the archipelago and wrote his own narrative. The traveler is Giovanni Francesco Gemelli Careri who, in 1699, published parts of the six-volume travel account Giro del mondo (A Voyage round the World). Both Pigafetta, a Vincentian, and Gemelli Careri, a Calabrian, contributed to the long-standing Italian literary tradition of narrating travel. Despite belonging to a literary canon that was unequivocally “Italian”, voyagers from the Bel paese who weaved travel narratives at the height of the so-called age of exploration found themselves in a unique position, distinct from that of their European counterparts. Italy as a unified political entity would not exist until 1861, the year that marked the culmination of the Risorgimento movement which gave birth to the unified Kingdom of Italy. It is within this geopolitical context that Pigafetta wrote his Relazione del primo viaggio intorno al mondo and Gemelli Careri his Giro del mondo. Voluntarily casting themselves away from their patria, both Pigafetta and Gemelli Careri sought to patch up their fragmented identity by taking part in the wider European discursive practice of identity-building through interpreting difference. This paper is an examination of the parallelisms and differences between the two Italian travel accounts, framing them against the backdrop of Philippine colonization on one hand, and the “placelessness” of the Italian traveler who grapples with a troubled national identity.



Giuseppina Monaco (University of Naples  “L’Orientale”)giuseppina.monaco@hotmail.it

Elio Modigliani’s adventures across Sumatra island in the late 19th century.

Between 1886 and 1893, an Italian explorer, Elio Modigliani explored Sumatra and its islands in the western coast, Nias, Enggano and Mentawai archipelago. His first trip, in 1886, was to the island of Nias, of which he explored the southern region, travelling among head-hunting tribes.

In the autumn of 1890, he began his second trip to the Indonesian archipelago, with destination the inner region of Sumatra island inhabited by the Batak. He entered the still unexplored lands of the Lake Toba region, which, at that time, was outside the control of the colonial power, thanks to the friendship with local chiefs. In 1891 forced by the Dutch authorities to suspend his explorations in hostile places, Modigliani went to the island of Enggano. In September 1893 Modigliani left for his last expedition, intending to explore the Mentawai archipelago to achieve a complete study of the chain of islands that extends along the west coast of Sumatra.  With his incredible courage and probably thanks to his recklessness he managed to explore, and therefore to describe, with excellent writing qualities, those islands that encompass a bewildering diversity of language, culture, human types.

The collection brought by him constitutes one of the main corpora of the National Anthropological and Ethnographical Museum of Florence. It consists of about 2000 objects, which display different aspects of indigenous culture: clothing, trading, housing, objects of worship, writing tradition; a large number of anthropological findings (skulls, skeletons, plaster casts), and a magnificent set of photographs.

During his journeys, Modigliani wrote extensively leaving us with crucial records of his research in various forms, from private letters, articles for the Italian Geographical Society, volumes but also conferences in the presence of the queen of that time, Queen Margherita of House Savoy, in which the physical and environmental characteristics of the territories he explored and the accounts regarding the human beings have always been interconnected.

This presentation aims to think back on this forgotten figure, who was one of the most prominent Italian travelers of the late 19th century, and the forerunner of the modern anthropology and ethnography whose main features have been wholly defined only half-century later, through his travel reports.



Ramayda Akmal (University of Hamburg) – ramaydaakmal@gmail.com

Europe as the Other in Contemporary Indonesian Travel Literature.

One main aspect of travelling depicted in contemporary Indonesian travel literature is the process through which authors, as the Self, meet the Other in different places and cultures and conduct a process of othering. As a consequence of the development of self-identity, power relations between the Self and the Other are always embedded in this process of othering. In Indonesian travel literature, discourse about Europe as the Other has become quite dominant, as Europe is the most popular destination for authors to visit and write about.

Historically, the archipelago that is now Indonesia experienced colonialization under several European countries. At the time, Indonesia was the Other for Europeans, whose othering practices produced stereotypes that remain entrenched in Indonesians’ minds. This is particularly evident in the perceived binary opposition between ’superior’ Europe and ’inferior’ Asia.

This paper seeks to examine the process through which Indonesian authors conduct the process of othering, even as such stereotypes remain embedded in the minds and cultural practices of the Indonesian people. Using a narratological analysis and postcolonial approach, this paper tries to identify the strategies used by authors (the Self) to deal with the contradictory situation mentioned above, particularly the possibility of producing different attitudes to deal with ’superior’ Europe as the Other. This paper examines three representatives of Indonesian contemporary travel literature: Menyusuri Lorong-Lorong Dunia I (2005) by Sigit Susanto; Negeri van Oranje (2009) by Wahyuningrat, Adept Widiarsa, Nisa Riyadi, and Rizki Pandu Permanda; and 99 Cahaya di Langit Eropa (2013) by Hanum Salsabiela Rais and Reza Almahendra.

This study finds that contemporary Indonesian travel writers have responded to this situation with three possible attitudes. First, through travel literature, the Self may reverse and dismantle the stigma of Asian inferiority. Second, consciously or unconsciously, the Self may be trapped into reaffirming the stereotypes that recognize Europe as superior. Third, they may face this situation with ambiguity or contradictory attitudes, using mimicry, mockery, and other subversive strategies.

Keywords: Indonesian travel literature, the Self, the Other, Europe, narrative, postcolonial.



Maurizio Borriello (University of Naples “L’Orientale”) – mborriello@hotmail.com

A trans-disciplinary approach to the study of Indonesian prahu vessels.

This research aims to investigate Indonesian traditional boatbuilding technology in order to elaborate a typological classification of the prahu vessels and to document their construction techniques.

Although considerable research has been devoted to the comprehension of Indonesia’s role in the Indian Ocean maritime trade, rather less attention has been paid to the study of the watercrafts which propelled such trade. Unfortunately, there are only few remaining examples of sailing vessels built before the radical transformations caused by the introduction of motorization and other modern technologies. Moreover, it is very difficult to find documents describing hull shapes, since traditional boats have always been built without the aid of technical drawings, but according to knowledge transferred orally through generations.

In order to respond to such criticism, the objective of my project is to use 3D laser scanning technology to survey and record the hull shape of the prahu. Another important purpose is to document the traditional boatbuilding techniques in order to investigate the cognitive aspects of the transmission of technical knowledge and its process of embodiment. The fieldwork will include a period of practical apprenticeship working together with Indonesian shipwrights at the construction of a prahu.

The final goal of my research is to integrate modern Carvel Planking technique with Indonesian traditional boatbuilding technology in order to develop a versatile construction method which aim to achieve accurate results in shorter time, using simple tools and minimizing the wastage of material.



4c – Democracy and Authoritarianism (computer room)


Bridget Welsh (John Cabot University, Rome) –   bwelsh@johncabot.edu

A (Losing) Battle for Democracy in Southeast Asia?

Rising global authoritarianism has spread to Southeast Asia, with the return of strongmen, increased role of the military in domestic politics, rise of anti-democratic values, deepening religious conservatism, a decline in human rights and increased discrimination, especially for vulnerable ethnic and sexual minorities. Thailand’s 2019 (s)election, persistent tensions over democracy in Indonesia’s 2019 political campaign, limited and slowed political reforms in Myanmar and Malaysia, and popular support for authoritarian leaders in the Philippines (Rodrigo Duterte) and Cambodia (Hun Sen), speak to how a region lauded as part of the third wave of democratization is now undergoing both democratic decay and democratic deconsolidation.

This paper looks at the rise of authoritarianism in Southeast Asia, identifying a series of factors to understand the region’s drivers of its democratic contraction. The argument developed is that while Southeast Asia does echo the global drivers of authoritarianization – rising and persistent inequalities, political polarization and dissatisfaction with governance and democracy’s performance, especially among the younger generation of millennials, there are unique features of the region that make the process of authoritarianism even more impactful, namely the proximity and interventions of China, the fact that the targeted vulnerable populations are largely not migrants but local citizens, the rapid expansion of non-regulated social media, weak regional architecture, and the prominence of authoritarian nostalgia in the actors who are participating in political roles. There is a unique contemporary Southeast Asia pattern of authoritarianization.

The paper begins by tracing the areas where there is democratic contraction. Drawing from my work as a Senior Advisor for Freedom House, this paper lays out the recent trends in political and civil rights, with particular attention to human rights violations and contestation over public discourse. The paper examines trends in all eleven countries – Brunei, Cambodia, Indonesia, Laos, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Timor L’este, Thailand and Vietnam – of the region. It then traces both the global and regional drivers of authoritarianization. The research draws of surveys from the Asian Barometer Survey, of which I am also a team member, and field research conducted in 2018-2019, concluding the how regional dimensions are ultimately shaping the pace and form of democratic contraction.



Stefano Ruzza stefano.ruzza@unito.it, Giuseppe Gabusi giuseppe.gabusi@unito.it, & Davide Pellegrino davide.pellegrino@unito.it (University of Turin) –  

Authoritarian resilience through top-down transformation: making sense of Myanmar’s incomplete transition.

Starting from the imperfect nature of Myanmar’s democracy, this article aims to answer two questions. First, can Myanmar’s transition be defined as a case of democratization, or is it, rather, a case of authoritarian resilience? To state this differently: is the progress enjoyed by Myanmar’s polity the outcome of an ongoing process that is supposed to lead to a fully fledged democracy, or, rather, an attempt to enshrine elements of authoritarian governance under a democratic guise? Second, if the balance leans towards the latter instead of the former, how did authoritarian resilience work in Myanmar? The transition is analysed from a long-term perspective, moving from the 1988 pro-democracy uprising up to the most recent events. Data were collected from available published sources and from three fieldworks conducted by the authors in Myanmar. The article concludes that Myanmar’s transition is better understood as a case of authoritarian resilience than as democratization and highlights three core traits of Myanmar’s authoritarian resilience: first, the very top-down nature of the political transformation; second, the incumbents’ ability to set the pace of political reform through the use of repression and political engineering; and third, the divide-and-rule strategy used as a means to keep contestations separated and parochial.




Marc Pinol (University of Bristol) –  marc.pinol@brisol.ac.uk

Digital democracy in hybrid regimes; the case study of Cambodia.

In the early 2010s, the potential of digital democracy to empower individuals and societal organisations by providing them with a gateway to active political participation supposed a wave of optimism for the Cambodian civil society. Yet such enthusiasm vanished following the 2013 elections as the country witnessed an increase of authoritarian practises, including the dismantlement of the main opposition party CNRP and a crackdown on individual and collective freedoms, that culminated with a landslide victory of the ruling party CPP, that faced almost no opposition. Despite concerns of Cambodia being a one-party state, the remarkable sense of fear among civilians, and the questioned efficacy of digital democracy as a response to authoritarianism, I will engage with the ways in which digital tools offer a chance to rebalance power relations between civil society and government to argue that, ultimately, the impact of digital democracy in governance must not be underestimated. To achieve my aim, I will analyse the underlying notions of democratic governance to highlight the importance of the civil society to engage in politics via digital tools, so I can feature the task of digital democracy in the frame of active democracy – a model that encourages fair distribution of power and thus co-created governance.

Therefore, this study addresses the gap that concerns the link between on and offline political activity, thus furthering the existing knowledge on political participation. Overall, findings will contribute to expand the current understanding of the democratisation process of Cambodia, especially after the Paris Peace Accords. More broadly, this research contributes to explore the impact of digital democracy in hybrid regimes; a fundamentally understudied cohort of countries. Furthermore, I will also engage with the methodological challenges that a protracted research stay in Phnom Penh supposes to obtain and analyse primary data, like selection of adequate methods, sampling, and ethical considerations to protect all respondents and myself, due to the sensitivity of the topic to be researched.








17.00 – 19.00 Parallel session 5

5a – History (Chapel)


Ubaldo Iaccarino (Institute of Taiwan History, Academia Sinica) – ubaldoiaccarino@gmail.com

Trade and Smuggling around the Philippines: Ports, Routes, and Networks (16th-17th Centuries).

As soon as they reached the Visayas (Cebu), in 1565, the Spaniards took part in the local interregional trade in forestry products, metals, spices, and exotic rarities, which eventually stimulated the growth of commerce and resulted in the establishment of the transpacific route of the ‘Manila Galleons’ from the Philippines to Mexico.

Before long, informal trade relations were established with the Chinese, Japanese, and ‘Moro’ traders who plied between the ports of Southeast Asia, and regularly sailed to Manila from Fujian, Kyūshū and the Malay Archipelago, as well as with some Portuguese captain-merchants who controlled the trade routes between Macao, Malacca and the Moluccas. Some Spanish ships were also sent to Indochina, while a few “Siamese” vessels visited Manila at the end of the 16th century carrying quantities of ivory and benzoin.

This speech will give an overview of the principal trade networks which were established, or were developed, around the Philippines between the late-16th and early-17th centuries, discussing Manila’s commercial relations with the countries of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Rim.



Jacques P. Leider (École Française d’Extrême-Orient) – jacques.leider@efeo.net

The quarry of the historical archive and the shifting discourse on victimhood: a review of the Rohingya case 1988-2018.

The outbreak of communal violence in Rakhine State of Myanmar in 2012 created an unprecedented international awareness of the situation of the Muslim majority population in Myanmar’s border districts with Bangladesh and other central locations of Rakhine State. For the first time the name adopted by activists since the late 1950s for the North Rakhine Muslims, “Rohingyas” became globally known. Also for the first time in a long history of state-ethnic discontent and ongoing degradation of economic, social and political conditions the international community became massively involved and the media discourse became exclusively focused on the victimhood and human rights violations. The mass flight of several hundred thousand Rohingyas to Bangladesh in 2017 shifted the discourse on victimhood entirely to the accusations of ethnic cleansing and genocide.

The humanitarian context led to the isolation of the Rohingya case from the broader context of Rakhine politics, ethnic nationalism and ethno-religious border issues. The evidence of historical sources that may have led to a critical and richer examination of the circumstances has been quoted often out of context, quoted in incoherent ways, dismissed, ignored and frequently declared as irrelevant under the pressure of humanitarian immediacy. No efforts have been made to promote either reconciliation or debate on questions of historical relevance. This discursive imbalance has been further reinforced by the gap in media capacity and outreach by actors inside and outside Myanmar.

The presentation will highlight developments over the last 30 years and point to several of the implications of the discursive monopoly of HR activism for academic research in the fields of anthropology and history.



Gianpietro Sette (University of Padua) – seven.alberi@gmail.com

Dragoman and pirates: Transposition of a case study from the Mediterranean to the Indian Ocean.


Andrew Hardy (École Française d’Extrême-Orient) – hardyvn25@yahoo.com

General, Diplomat, Ethnographer: Nguyen Tan and the Pacification of the Borderlands of Quang Ngai (Vietnam), 1863-1871.



5b – Cities, Urbanisation and the Rural World (Library)


Giulia Zaninelli (University of Milano Bicocca) giulia_zaninelli@hotmail.it

Visions of environmental change: farmers and environmentalists within small oil palm plantations in Riau, Indonesia.

In this paper I will show the structure of my Phd project, which aims to investigate the social, political and environmental dimensions of small oil palm plantations in Riau province (Sumatra, Indonesia). This project is based on a previous experience on the island Sumatra, in the province of Aceh, where I carried out a short research at the end of the master.

On one hand, I will investigate the local concept of nature and landscape (Peluso, 2015; Turri, 1998) and how these are configured in a province where intensive plantations and small kebun are very present. I will study how small oil palm plantations could be both arena and market (Olivier De Sardan, 1995), in which individual and collective agency of workers and smallholders are negotiated. This small oil palm plantations are also spaces in which friction (Tsing, 2004) among global and local dynamics takes place and shapes the workers’ life stories.

On the other hand, starting from the small oil palm plantation, I intend to investigate the public narratives of local environmental NGOs and their actions on the territory involved in the research. I will focus specifically on the narratives about deforestation caused by small oil palm plantations used by different kind of NGOs: the ones specifically focused on environmental conservation, the ones which utilize environmental narratives for workers’ rights protection and the ones which use environmental actions in order to maintain local culture.

I speculate that the small oil palm plantation is a place of continuous construction and deconstruction of individual and collective agency and it is interpreted socially, politically, culturally and narratively in different ways by workers and environmental NGOs. It is also assumed that environmentalism is a cultural product built elsewhere than in areas where NGOs propose environmental protection and education projects (Milton, 2005).

The nexus between the two aim of my research in inspired by Kay Milton’s (2005) investigation about the environmental conscious and I will investigate this topic using personal narratives of activists, nature lovers and also farmers and smallholders; in order to investigate this last part I will use audiovisual tools which could allowed me to create a short ethno-documentary and a parallel artistic project based on my research.



Antonella Diana (Ca’ Foscari University of Venice) – antonella.diana09@gmail.com

Sauté urbanisation”: the tension between ville and cité in an emerging border city in China’s South-west.

Post-Mao urbanisation in China’s long-established metropolises has been widely explored and explained as a process of neo-liberal space-restructuring enabled by the post-socialist state that has resulted in atomization, inequality, exclusion, and class stratification. Conversely, recent non-metropolitan urbanisation in China’s multi-ethnic south-western periphery remains understudied and how it diverges from or converges with the large-scale expansion of traditional urban centres is a question that is yet to be answered. The proposed presentation aims to fill this knowledge gap by exploring the intertwinement of ville, built space, and cité, the lived place (Sennett 2018), in Jinghong, an emerging city in southern Yunnan province, near the border with Myanmar and Laos. It draws on ethnographic fieldwork carried out through 2018 and 2019 in four ethnic Tai neighbourhoods, and adopts a multidisciplinary approach that integrates methods and perspectives from anthropology, urban studies, urban planning and urban geography. Taking the Chinese expression ‘chaofang’, literally meaning ‘stir-fry housing’, as a starting point, I term the tension between the spatial form and social practice in Jinghong ‘sauté urbanisation’. Like vegetables that are disorderly tossed over in a stir-fry pan, urbanization in Jinghong is sauté in that it is not a linear course of development featuring the built form in mere opposition to social practice. Rather I show that it is an open-ended and circular process whereby the ville informs the cité and vice versa. A mixture of land dispossession, commodification of Tai ethnic cultural features, secluded dwelling, primacy of individual profit over collective wellbeing, priority of beautification over functionality lies at the basis of building much of Jinghong’s new urban space. However, through this crafting process, the ambitions of local government officials, planners, real estate speculators, and an emerging ethnic Han metropolitan middle-upper class variously intersect or collide with, and are influenced by the lived place-making experiences of Tai urban dwellers. Underscoring the intricacies of building and dwelling in the specific context of China’s southwestern borderlands, the presentation will also lay the foundations for new theorizations and methodologies in the study of Asia urbanisation in general.



Philippe Régnier (University of Applied Sciences, Western Switzerland) –  philippe.regnier@hefr.ch

Connecting Hinter-World and Hinterlands: Exploring Regional and World Functions of Global Cities in Southeast Asia.
The concept of global cities is a recent object of study introduced by economic geographers and urban sociologists since the 1990s. Based on their work, annual rankings of about 100 global cities worldwide have been introduced and published for the first time since the turn of the new century.

First this paper suggests that the notion of global cities is not a radical conceptual innovation but a kind of continuity in the study of major ports, trading emporia and city-states through multi-secular forms of globalization prior, during and after the colonial era.

Second, the author reviews a spectrum of recent scientific contributions on global cities in relation with the current wave of neo-liberal globalization.

Thirdly, some research pathways are proposed to explore how first ranking global cities in East/Southeast Asia tend to connect regional and world economies, namely the hinter-world and hinterlands.

Finally, the paper explores at the empirical level how international economics and management studies can contribute to this discussion. Empirical research has been already conducted since 1992 onward with a focus on multinational corporations and their affiliates in terms of their presence and concentration in global cities, including in East/Southeast Asia. This permits to aggregate MNC data and to rank global cities annually during the last 15 years. More recently, other research paths have been suggested with a focus on the entrepreneurial eco-systems of global cities and their attraction of other types of corporations, internationalizing large enterprise and SMEs, globally born start-ups, and business development services (BDS) such as consulting and law firms. Singapore is a case in point, and to a lesser extent Bangkok, Kuala Lumpur and Jakarta.





Carolina Boldoni (CRIA-ISCTE University of Lisbon) crlpois@gmail.com

Uma Lulik as Heritage: Ancestors, Agriculture, Kinship.

The uma lulik (sacred houses, Tetun) are paramount within the East Timorese rural society, as well as within the current UNESCO heritageisation [Harvey 2015] in Timor-Leste. In fact, these‘traditional’ architectures are scattered throughout the territory, presenting different symbolic and aesthetic configurations based on the area they are located in, as well as on the ethno-linguistic group they belong to.1 What kind of representation of the uma lulik the Official Heritage discourse is developing in Timor-Leste? What elements of the uma lulik are included and which ones are excluded and why?


The presentation is going to focus on the characteristics of the uma lulik that are left aside by the Authorised Heritage Discourse [Smith 2006] in Timor-Leste and try to argue the reasons of this. During my fifteen-months fieldwork research in the sub-district of Venilale (district of Baukau, Timor-Leste), I could notice how the social configuration of the uma lulik is important within the rural communities of the territory, sometimes even more than the actual physical structure of it. Most importantly, the sacred houses represent kin and clan relationships celebrating the alliances between the fetosan (wife ‘takers’) and the umane (wife ‘givers’) as well as the offspring resulting from these ‘agreements’ throughout the generations. Hence, the uma lulik are places where the memory of the clan is stored, represented by the objects of the dowries and the gifts exchanged by the fetosan and umane, as well as by the objects transmitted by the ancestors. In addition, agriculture is one of the most important activities for the local rural communities of Venilale, which is partly related to uma lulik.2 In fact, each uma lulik has ‘sacred’ fields which belong to it. The harvesting of the rice and the corn (staple East Timorese food) of these ‘special’ fields deserve a celebration for the ancestors, to show gratitude to the ancestors for the harvesting. Generally, celebrations are conducted in the uma lulik building. In the cases in which the uma lulik has not been built yet, the household does celebrate the harvest in the origin place of the lineage. Thus, twice per year harvesting celebrations take place. Other elements and places of the territory can belong to the uma lulik. Along with the ‘special’ or ‘sacred’ fields, there are also ‘non-domesticated’ places of spring of waters, that are always considered lulik (sacred/forbidden in Tetun). Generally speaking, the land and the landscape are believed to be inhabited by spirits (lulik) [Bovensiepen 2009]. 1 For a general overview on the linguistic situation of Timor-Leste https://www.ethnologue.com/country/TL/languages.

2 Outside of Dili the majority of the population rely on subsistence agriculture.

2 Despite the importance of these rituals connecting the clan to their uma lulik, to their

ancestors, to the land and to the territory they inhabit as well as to natural/non-human spirits that are believed to inhabit the land, the Authorised Heritage Discourse does not seem interested in

recognizing these celebrations as part of the local traditions and of heritage. Why these celebrations are not displayed as national heritage? Are there other rituals linked to the uma lulik which are more likely displayed rather than the agriculture cycle? Can we think about these connections between people, ancestors and territory as an emic form of Cultural Landscape? What can this knowledge tell us about the resources of the territory? Why and how the Heritage discourse in Timor-Leste is trying to ‘transform’ the representation of the rural areas (foho)? And what is the ‘answer’ at the local level? In short, I am going to point out the ambiguities of the ‘liberal’ discourses and policies developed by the government institutions and by the International Heritage framework. Consequently, I am arguing how these liberal discourses are one of the main reasons why the Heritage Discourse is currently focused on the tangible elements of the uma lulik, leaving aside the intangible dimensions of the sacred houses.




5c – Language, Ethnography and Philology (Computer room))


Aurora Donzelli (Sarah Lawrence University)  adonzelli@slc.edu

Romantic Democracy: Love Songs, Political Speeches, and Shifting Political Economies of Emotions in Toraja (Indonesia).

Major institutional and socio-economic transformations always entail a restructuring of the affective tonality and emotional styles of political and public discourse, for, as several scholars have pointed out, all great transformations “must be affective in order to be effective” (see, for example, Mazzarella 2009, 299; Muehlebach 2012; Richard and Rudnyckyj 2009; Rofel 2007; Stoler 2004).

In Indonesia, the end of Suharto’s authoritarian regime inaugurated a new political landscape and induced profound socioeconomic transformations prompting a transition from a highly centralized form of state-led development to a decentralized system based on market capitalism. Structural shifts of this magnitude both entail and presuppose profound re-articulations of local moral systems, affective structures, and modes of speaking. This paper, written on the eve of Indonesia’s presidential elections, engages the intersection between broad institutional transformations and the moral and affective lives of individuals through an ethnographic journey into a peripheral region of the archipelago. More specifically, I focus on the recent shifts in the political registers of the Toraja—an Indonesian ethno-linguistic community that comprises the inhabitants of a highland region of Sulawesi and a large diaspora of migrants—to argue that a fundamental yet largely overlooked aspect of Indonesia’s ongoing transformations concerns the emotional styles and affective-cum-semiotic registers of political self-presentation. Drawing on the analysis of political speeches and love songs collected during fifteen years of intermittent fieldwork (2002-2017), I show how the recent spreading of democratic hopes and neoliberal reforms is paralleled by transformations in the semiotic regimentation of emotion. Toraja speechmakers are abandoning the long-established melancholic affect of “nostalgic longing” (kamamaliran) to embrace a new repertoire of fulfilled mutual “love” (kaboro’). While the traditional register of “longing” projected a representation of political candidates as structurally dependent on the support of the electorate and thus embedded in relations of social reciprocity, the new register of “love” evokes images of fulfilled plenitude, as well as a new regime of intentional personalism. Aside from major transformations within the forms of personal and collective subjectivity, the shift from melancholic “longing” to happy “love” also entails a re-articulation in the grammatical encoding of desires and intentions. Contrary to the regime of impersonal fatalism underlying traditional political registers, the emerging cultural politics of affect entails new genres of discourse and new registers of subjectivity pivoting on neoliberal scripts of desire, individual aspirations, and personal entrepreneurship.



Andrea Gallo (University of Hanoi) – andreagall0@yahoo.it

Nôm reminiscence in modern Vietnamese language: the case of hồn and vía.

The work of the European Jesuits missionaries in Vietnam marks the first step in the passage of the Vietnamese language from Nôm writing with Chinese characters to Latin alphabet but this transition never really achieved and it still reverberates on different levels.

From an artistic point of view, a fleeting observer will notice Nôm inscriptions still decorating recently renovated Vietnamese temples and pagodas and from a linguistic point of view, those who have undertaken the study of Vietnamese language have already noticed how a significant number of Vietnamese words have a high register correspondent in Nôm language (nhỏ /nhi, nhà/gia, bay/phi or conversely the proper names: Văn is the Nôm for mây, Thanh/xanh, Hà/sông).

Going deeper in the issue we can argue that this transition was just nominally graphical and actually also involved the sphere of meanings: the terms hồn and vía, are illustrative in this regard. These terms originally indicated two groups of souls belonging to every individual, this inner plurality of Vietnamese animology later converged in a single, Christian intended, soul which was named by the Jesuites after one of the two groups (hồn).

From young college students to elders through low schooling workers and entrepreneurs, wide part of the population have notions of this plurality and despite the linguistic distance (and the fact that only a few could really explain or place this belief in the diversified universe of cults and religions of modern Vietnam) the original meanings are so deep-seated in the language that the plurality of Vietnamese animology still reverberates in exclamations, proverbs and other expressions of daily use in the most diversified contexts, including social networks.

The paper I would like to present is based on an essay by French psychoanalyst and scholar in Vietnamese Studies Patrick Fermi. It examines the terms hồn and vía from a point of view which is etymological: going back to the origin of these terms through the analysis of their Chinese character and their transition to Nôm and then Latin; literary: mentioning references and translation cases from Vietnamese national literature and poems such as “Truyện Kiều” and “Văn chiêu hồn” from Nguyễn Du and it ends with a sociolinguistic perspective over the formulaic expressions which include these terms today, up to a recall to modern European psychology and a suggestion on possible paths of interdisciplinary research.




Roberta Zollo (University of Hamburg)andreagall0@yahoo.it

Building collections from colonized Indonesia: historical and ethical perspective in the case of the Batak collection of the ethnographic museum of Hamburg.

Most of the European ethnographical Indonesian collections are the results of three different, but often interrelated, variables: scientific expeditions, military expeditions, and missionaries activities. Almost without distinctions, the people involved in these activities have been the main actors in the process of building up the anthropological and ethnographical European collections. Undeniably the act of collecting during the colonial times was never a neutral activity. It was rather based on imbalanced political forces and power relations between the owners of the objects and the collectors who desired them. It is also true that the collections resulting from these acquisitions cannot be considered as “pure” representation of the culture which produced them. They are the result of the encounter of interest of two main actors of this process, the producer and the collector, as well as other agents, who inevitably influenced the production, commodification, and appreciation of the objects.

Unlike most of the European Batak collections, of which we know very little about the history, the provenance and identities of the collectors who brought the objects to Europe, the collection of the ethnographic museum of Hamburg is well documented. The majority of the items were, indeed, collected to the German missionary doctor Johannes Winkler, who had settled in North Sumatra from 1901 to 1920, and sold to the museum in the years after his permanence in Sumatra. During his stay in the Batak lands, Dr. Winkler established a certain rapport with the local population and especially with a famous Datu Ama Batu Holing, who helped him to understand the Batak culture and informed him about the traditional healing procedures of the Batak people. Thanks to this relation, Dr. Winkler had access to large numbers of items used in everyday life by the Batak and especially, he was able to commission to Datu Ama Batu Holing the composition of a certain number of tree-bark manuscripts, the pustaha, traditionally the containers of the mystical and secret knowledge of the Batak datu.

This paper will analyze and underline how the personal interest of Dr. Winkler influenced the composition of the contemporaneous Batak collection of aforementioned German cultural institution and, at the same time, will describe the vicissitudes that the same has suffered until today, where the process of re-discovering the collection is now in progress.



Ulrich Kozok (University of Hawaii) –  kozok@hawaii.edu

Petrus Voorhoeve (1899-1996) and Liberty Manik (1924-1993) were the most important Batak philologists in the 20th century.

In Indonesia, Manik is best known as the composer of one of Indonesia’s national anthems, Satu Nusa Satu Bangsa. Manik studied music in Berlin, and in the1960ies he spent over a years traveling from place to place in Germany to compile a catalogue of more than 250 Batak manuscripts in German collections. The catalogue was published in 1973, but Manik did not only catalogue the manuscripts, but he also transliterated a large number of manuscripts in 13 handwritten folio books. After Manik’s death in Yogyakarta, a part of his collection was gifted to the Indonesian Academy of Theology, and the reminder was thrown away by his heirs. I mentioned this saddening story in my book Warisan Leluhur (1999), but it was only almost 20 years later that one of Manik’s heirs contacted me and told me that he visited Manik’s house shortly after he had passed away, and rescued some of Manik’s manuscripts in 1996. My presentation will focus on the remarkable rediscovery of Manik’s transliterations of Batak manuscripts in German possessions, and the power of digitization of manuscripts as means of protecting and documenting textual heritage.






FRIDAY 24 MAY



9.00 – 11.00 Parallel session 6

6a – Challenges to Regional Integration (Chapel)


Michał Zaręba (University of Lodz) – michalzareba1@gmail.com

Hydropolitics of the Mekong River Basin and Its Influence on Regional Integration.

The Mekong is one of the longest transboundary river in Asia which provides major natural resources for over 80 million people living in six riparian states, China and five Southeast Asian countries, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia and Vietnam. The Mekong is the largest inland fishery, crucial transportation route, main source of fresh water also used in agriculture but the river has primarily great hydropower potential.

Since 1957, when Mekong Committee was established, lower riparian countries have been cooperating with each other to promote equitable use of water resources and improve their economic situation. Due to the era of instability in the region Committee failed to fulfil its ambitions. However idea of integration survived and downstream states decided to establish in 1995 new organization – Mekong River Commission. The need for economic growth caused that riparian countries have started to develop their hydropower potential. Since 1990s, when the first large-scale dam was constructed in Yunnan province, China has already built eight hydropower plants on the mainstream and tributaries of the Mekong. Despite the environmental concern and voices that dams may have negative impact on fishery and agriculture there are efforts to construct hydropower projects in the lower riparian states such as Laos. Dynamism of regional hydropolitics led to the growing engagement of China in integration processes over the water resources which led in 2016 to the creation of new mechanism, the Mekong-Lancang Cooperation, under the Chinese umbrella.

This paper will examine hydropolitics in relation to the capacity of regional geopolitical institutions which create a platform of cooperation over shared waters in the spirit of sustainable development. It will investigate the role of actors producing ecological knowledge what can legitimize or question validity of dams construction. Furthermore paper will point out actors which have the greatest impact on regional hydropolitics by generating and disseminating information on building of hydropower plants and their influence on environment and agriculture. It will also analyse the character of relations over the water resources by indicating drivers of conflict and incentives for collaboration, answering question if hydropolitics enhances or undermines integration processes in the Mekong River Basin.



Paulo Castro Seixas, Nuno Canas Mendes & Nadine Lobner (ISCSP, Universidade de Lisboa) – nlobner@iscsp.ulisboa.pt

PROJECT -Competing Regional Integration in Southeast Asia

The ‘readiness’ of Timor-Leste: Narratives about the admission procedure to ASEAN.

Abstract: The following paper is based on an empirical research with an inductive approach about the admission of Timor-Leste to ASEAN. We examined a corpus of international newspapers (N=48) which forms a debate over this case on the internet. The articles are reproduced in English and are currently the most representative form of debating the membership delay which takes place since 2011. Throughout the observation of our gathered data, we discovered one main narrative that is reproduced by several agents/spokespersons: The Readiness of Timor-Leste to join the Southeast Asian grouping. Hence, built through three rationalities (preparedness, ambivalence, conflict), the Narrative of Readiness reveals a common sense amongst the agents. Therefore, we propose an International Imagined Community in the making - even though the delay of the Timor-Leste admission to ASEAN still raises further questions.

Keywords: Timor-Leste; ASEAN; international imagined communities; agency; agents; transnational affairs.



Arlo Poletti arlo.poletti@unitn.it & Daniela Sicurelli daniela.sicurelli@unitn.it (University of Trento)

Promoting sustainable development through trade? EU trade agreement with Vietnam and global value chains.

Sustainable development provisions have become an integral part of the EU’s ‘new generation’ trade agreements. Yet, a growing number of empirical works show that their design varies significantly, even in the trade agreements signed with other countries with similar income levels. When compared with other trade agreements concluded by the EU with lower and middle-income countries (CARIFORUM and Andean states), the trade agreement with Vietnam (2014) stands out for the soft measures included in its sustainable development chapter in terms of bindingness of environmental and labour standards, enforcement provisions and transparency and public participation measures. We contend that this record can be accounted for by considering the high level of integration of the EU economy with Vietnam (as opposed to CARIFORUM and Andean states) across Global Value Chains (GVCs), and testing the effect of this position on the domestic politics of regulatory export in the EU. European firms that operate within GVCs rely on imports of inputs produced in low-labour cost countries. These firms tend to oppose the export of those regulatory burdens that generate an increase of their imports’ variable costs. By weakening Baptists-bootlegger coalitions supporting regulatory export strategies, this dynamic explains why the EU has adopted a more lenient approach over the inclusion of sustainable development provision in PTA negotiations with Vietnam rather than with developing countries in other regions. This study has implications for the study of the self-portrayed role of the EU as a normative power through trade in South East Asia.



Giuseppe Gabusi (University of Turin and T.wai – Torino World Affairs Institute)andreagall0@yahoo.it

Feeling the pressure: The border factor in Myanmar’s interaction with China and India.

In 2013, China and India officially established among themselves an Economic Corridor (BCIM-EC) that would cut across Myanmar and Bangladesh. Soon afterwards, these two countries joined the Sino-Indian venture, aimed at establishing a structured trans-border co-operation. The political and economic weight of China and India is such that weaker countries like Myanmar – geographically squeezed in-between – feel the pressure to bend to its giant neighbours’ interests. While the formal process of co-operation is in place, many obstacles remain at the international, national and local level. The paper looks at borderlands in Northern Myanmar as contested places, where the presence of a variety of political and economic actors not necessarily expressing their loyalty to the central government in Nayipyitaw complicates the interaction of the country with China and India. The paper aims at evaluating if a meaningful co-operation is possible within the BCIM-EC framework and if Myanmar is able to keep a distance to both neighbours in order to protect its own interests. How Northern borderlands as contested places are constraining Myanmar’s “room to maneuver” in formal regionalization processes involving also China and India? The paper draws also from fieldwork research in Yangon, Nay Pyi Taw, and in Shan and Kachin states.




6b – Environment (Computer Room)


Tomasz Kamiński (University of Lodz) – tomasz.kaminski@uni.lodz.pl

International cooperation of South East Asian cities: environmental dimension.

Although environmental policy is formulated at the national and supranational level (eg. the EU, the UN), the subnational units bear the responsibility for its practical implementation. Cities consume over two thirds of the world’s energy and account for more than 70% of global CO2 emissions. In consequence the position of city governments on ecological issues became an important factor for the general success of global sustainable development. We also observe the development of global environmental networks of subnational governments, whose goals are mainly related to producing and sharing ecological knowledge. Academic literature on this environmental dimension of cooperation is way too much concentrated on Western regions/cities leaving a gap as far as South East Asian (SEA) subnational units are concerned. In this paper I am going to analyse SEA cities’ participation in translocal environmental networks (C40, CityNet, Global Convenant of Mayors for Climate and Energy and ICLEI - Local Governments for Sustainability) in the context of production and sharing ecological knowledge. Based on interviews with officials from networks as well as cities I will try to understand what the driving factors, obstacles and impact of the participation in the networks are.



Robert A. Farnan (Chiang Mai University) –  bobby.farnan@gmail.com

Hydroscapes of Knowledge and Controversy: Infrastructural Publics and Transboundary Environmental Governance and Activism in Myanmar and Thailand.

This project explores the intersection of hydropower development, ecological knowledge and controversy in the context of transboundary environmental governance and activism in Myanmar and Thailand. Significant attention in geography and political ecology has been paid to the social and environmental impacts and transboundary resource management of the commons, which arise in the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS) in response to large-scale infrastructure projects, such as the 1,365MW Hatgyi dam on the Salween river. Less attention has been given to the role played by ecological knowledge (Jasanoff 2004) and its associated controversies, which inform ‘infrastructural publics’ (Collier, von Schnitzler, Mizes 2016). It is therefore the aim of this project to explore how ecological knowledge, and associated practices of boundary and scale making, as well as technical expertise and reterritorialization, are increasingly implicated in environmental struggle and governance over large-scale hydropower development (Gururani and Vandergeest 2014). Drawing from the burgeoning academic literature in critical security and science and technology studies (STS) respectively, this project goes beyond technocratic articulations of ‘boundary making’ and ‘expertise’ that often underlie the formation of ecological knowledge, to look at the practices of securitisation and information production involved in the transboundary politics of environmental governance and struggle. In order the shed light on these relationships, this project focuses its empirical lens on the Save the Salween Network, a multi-ethnic coalition of environmental and ethnic society organisations operating in Myanmar and Thailand, which emerged in opposition to the seven hydropower dams proposed for construction along the Salween’s mainstream in Myanmar.


Viana Alzola Nerea (Université de Genève)n.vianaalzola@gmail.com

The dynamics of the JCM: to what extent does it contribute to the creation of a low-carbon society?

Climate change is one of the defining issues of our time and we are currently at a decisive moment. The Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5°C, presented by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in October 2018, highlighted the need for rapid action. In this prospective, this study focuses on one of the proposed mechanisms as a possible solution to this major problem: The Joint Crediting Mechanism (JCM).

The JCM is a bilateral offset mechanism set up in 2013 and proposed by the Japanese government at the 2015 Paris Conference. It is structured around cross-border public-private partnerships (PPP) and its aim is to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In this regard, this work analyzes the dynamics of the JCM and, more specifically, to what extent the PPP between Japan and Indonesia, as part of the JCM, contribute to the creation of a low-carbon society. Thus, this study’s goal is to identify the modus operandi and current constraints of JCM in the area of cooperation between the two Asian countries.

To achieve this goal, the first part of this work focuses on the general and theoretical framework of the subject. Indeed, at this stage, I analyze the overall evolution of the governance process, the emergence of the PPP instrument, the general reasons that encourage actors to engage in this type of partnership and the challenges they face.

Then, the second part deals with the Asian context and its peculiarities. Therefore, I examine the Japanese and Indonesian governance system, the actors involved and the PPP adaptation process in this specific region of the world.

Finally, the third chapter is dedicated to the JCM case study. In this respect, following the same analysis scheme, I apply the concepts acquired in the first two parts. Indeed, this section explore the structure of JCM governance, the reasons that encourage the stakeholders to participate and the challenges related to the establishment of the JCM in these countries.



Andrea Valente and Lunting Wu (ISCSP, Universidade de Lisboa)nlobner@iscsp.ulisboa.pt

PROJECT: Competing Regional Integrations in Southeast Asia

Southeast Asia’s Transition to A Low-Carbon Economy and the Role of External Actors: A Comparative Study on the EU and China’s Science Diplomacy towards the ASEAN.

Bearing a common objective to become more integrated in a globalized economy, which constitutes the fourth pillar of the ASEAN Economic Community, the ASEAN is predisposed to act in line with global climate narratives, and is facing pressing needs to fulfill its ambitions of a low-carbon transition. Notwithstanding moderate progress, nevertheless, the profile of most of them as developing countries, coupled with the initial underdevelopment of niche-innovations on low-carbon technologies, the preponderance of fossil fuels in ASEAN energy mix and their dependency on energy imports, has propelled them to mainly adopt a passive accommodative posture in relation to global aspiration and the emergence of new technologies. As a result, the lack of a proactive standpoint to invest in research and development and knowledge creation that are vital for transition, as well as the insufficient domestic action to create an enabling environment towards this end actually concede a greater role for science diplomacy used by exogenous actors to shape the transition dynamics in the region. This article aims to dwell upon from a comparative perspective the EU and China’s science diplomacy towards the region in bringing about low-carbon transition, by analyzing three dimensions, namely willingness, capacity and acceptance. By doing so, it seeks to contribute to the understanding on why and the extent to which extra-regional actors’ science diplomacy are effective (or not) in fostering this process.

Keywords: Science diplomacy, low-carbon transition, European Union, China, ASEA



6c – Representations and Identities (Library)


Vincenzo della Ratta – (CASE- Centre Asie du Sud-Est, Paris) – vincenzodellaratta@hotmail.it

Is there a relation between the scenes depicted on the Dong Son bronze drums and the secondary mortuary ritual of the Jarai people (Central Highlands of Vietnam)?

The Jarai people are an Austronesian language speaking group living in Central Highlands of Vietnam. The Pơ thi secondary mortuary ritual is the most remarkable of the many ceremonies celebrated by the Jarai, in terms of its magnificence and the complexity of the elements involved. The Pơ thi (or Lui msat, the “tomb abandonment”) allows the spirits of the dead to reach their final abode. When the ritual is held, the tomb, decorated with many symbolic elements, becomes the centre of a sumptuous feast, lasting at least three days, which includes gong music, dances and buffalo sacrifices. When the ceremony is over, the tomb is abandoned to decay naturally.

The aim of this paper is to analyse some features of the Pơ thi ceremony and to compare them with some of the scenes depicted on the “Ngoc Lu” bronze drum, chosen as a paradigmatic example of the ‘Heger I’ type bronze drums of the culture of Dong Son, one of the most important Bronze Age sites of Southeast Asia. The culture associated with this location, which flourished between the 6th century B.C. and the 1st century A.D., is well known for the production of various bronze items, notably bronze drums – metal instruments richly decorated with mysterious scenes and motifs, the interpretation of which has always been controversial.



Lê Thùy Hiền (University of Naples “L’Orientale”) –  hienroberta@gmail.com

Vietnamese National Intangible Cultural Heritage: Dong Ho Woodcut Painting.

Dong Ho Woodcut Painting is an important form of traditional folk arts of Vietnam. Originated in Dong Ho village (Bac Ninh Province) and dated back to the Ly dynasty (XI-XII century), Dong Ho painting art was most developed during the XVII-XVIII century, and after facing the risk of disappearing during the war times, it has gained popularity again, having been recognized as part of the national intangible cultural heritage in 2012; currently, the Vietnam Ministry of Culture, Sport and Tourism is preparing the inventory for its submission to the World Heritage List Nominations. This study will explore the meanings and distinctive values of some of the Dong Ho paintings, which can be divided into five categories, based on their functions:

1- Worship paintings, which reflect the spiritual life of Vietnamese common people. They can depict religious figures, such as Quan  m (Guanyin-Goddess of Mercy), Thổ Công (Tudigong-God of the Soil and the Ground, Thần Tài (Caishen-God of Wealth), or spiritual symbols, such as Tứ quý (Four seasons), Ngũ chủ (Five items on offering altar);

2- Auspicious paintings, that usually contain well-wishing at the beginning of the lunar year, such as Vinh hoa (Glory), Phú quý (Wealth), Hạnh phúc (Happiness);

3- Historical paintings, in order to praise national heroes who had fought for the country’s unity and independence during Chinese dominance, e.g. Bà Trưng, Bà Triệu (The Trưng Sisters);

4- Book Paintings, which illustrate folk tales, such as Thạch Sanh (Thach Sanh tales), or classical books such as Kiều (Kiều Stories), Tam Quốc (Three Kingdoms).

5- Social activities paintings, which reflect the multifaceted rural life of Vietnamese people. They can describe daily work activities, such as Mục đồng (Shepherd boy), or festivals, such as Đánh vật (Wrestling), Rước rồng (Dragon procession). Many of them contain comical and ironical remarks, for example Đánh ghen (Jealousy), Hứng dừa (Collecting coconuts), or social satire, such as Đám cưới chuột (Rat’s Wedding);

The study will also present an explanation of the printing process and of the making process of the unique Dó printing papers and colours. Lastly, the study will discuss the recent status of Dong Ho village and the latest measures carried out by the Vietnamese authorities to restore and develop it, as part of the government strategy to promote Vietnam’s traditional culture and to boost sustainable craft tourism.



Roberto Rizzo (University of Milan Bicocca) – r.rizzo12@campus.unimib.it

Pemuda Buddhis and the historical imagination. Becoming community in a Javanese Buddhist revival.

The aim of this study is to present the varieties in which the youth contributes to the recreation

of a religiously-marked community in the context of rural Java, Indonesia, creatively appealing to a sense of historical continuity in order to give meaning and depth to contemporary practice. Java, and Indonesia at large, have been experiencing a sharp increase in discourses of religious orthodoxy aiming at re-positioning the religious in the national regime of identity politics. While this is a platform mostly occupied by Islam and Christianity, minority religions such as Buddhism and Hinduism have been indirectly compelled to adopt similar discourses involving the identity and orthodoxy tropes. Differently from modern Hinduism, however, the ways in which contemporary Buddhism is in the ongoing process of reshaping itself have been poorly researched.

One of its peculiarities has been arguably its being at once an “old” and a “new” religion, in that while it has been widely acknowledged has an important feature in the cultural constellation of pre- Islamic Java and Sumatra, its contemporary presence is the result of the the proselytizing efforts of the modernist schools – Theravada, Vajrayana – in the early 1900s. Despite the considerable temporal and cultural gap between these two distinct forms of religiosity, contemporary Buddhist practitioners strive to bridge this breach by elaborating historical narratives of continuity and identity, particularly so in the Javanese countryside, where links to an imagined Buddhist past are frequently made by reference to objects of heritage.

The research explores how the youth plays an active role in the re-creation of a Buddhist community in the modern sense, in a double and apparently contradictory movement. On the one hand young individuals and groups, such as Pemuda Buddhis, help introduce orthodox practices emanating from urban environments, on the other hand they become actively involved in recovering narratives and evidences that link being Buddhist in the present with the scantiness of historical Indonesian Buddhism. By framing this moves in the rich history of youth activism in Indonesia, I intend to show how such informal youth associations are crucial for the creation of a wider sense of communal belonging and the maintaining of a religious revival, albeit simultaneously contributing to its transformation in both discourse and practice. The material for the study is based on ethnographic fieldwork in Java as well as historical sources.



Esti Ismawati, Warsito (Universitas Widya Dharma Klaten, Indonesia) – estisetyadi@gmail.com

Local Wisdom in the Works of Surakarta Palace Poets and Creative Economic Opportunities in Indonesia.

Indonesia and various countries in the world are currently promoting the creative economy sector by forming a creative economic body. The passion of creative economic actors appears in all sub-sectors and various disciplinary fields, including academicians in the fields of language and literature. On the other hand, cultural aspects also play an important role in the development of the creative industry sector. There is a compound between economy and culture. United Nation Agency in the field of intellectual property (WIPO, World Intellectual Property Organization) even classifies cultural economics and creative economics as part of the copyright economy or the copyright industry. The Surakarta Palace is known as a cultural center that holds thousands of traces of cultural literacy. The poet works of the Mangkunegaran palace of Surakarta (Sri Paduka Mangkunegara IV) with the work of the book Wedhatama and Tripama and Sri Paduka Pakubuwana IV with the work of the book entitled Wulang Reh. These three books have great values ​​that emanate to fulfill all the ethics of life in the form of song (local wisdom). Among these values ​​there are ethical values ​​that emphasize the importance of education for everyone, the importance of developing reason, mind, rationality, or intellectuality for the provision of daily life, and the importance of the learning ethos. As explained in the book Wedhatama that the achievement of knowledge must be carried out through a process (ngelmu iku kelakone kanthi laku) and begins with a strong will (lekasane klawan kas). To elevate the human position, one must have three principles, namely rank, property, and intelligence (wirya harta tri winasis). If one has none of the three, then there is no meaning as a human, even dried teak leaves are more valuable than he is. The Wedhatama book consists of five pupuh (stanza) namely Pangkur, Sinom, Pocung, Gambuh, and Kinanthi with a great theme in each poem. The themes of Pangkur are about identity, the importance of science, character and how to be a good figure. The themes of Sinom are about rights and obligations and spiritual foundations for life. Pocung has the theme of the importance of humans in cosmos, namely the importance of struggling to gain knowledge and wirya (power), arta (wealth), and wasis (skills) as the basic requirements of life. Gambuh has the theme of deep understanding of religion (Islam), a formula known as sembah catur (four kinds of worship); raga, cipta, jiwa, rasa (body, creativity, soul, taste) as a way to get God’s grace.  Kinanthi has the theme of the tenet about how to live a good life which is interesting to develop. This paper discusses local wisdom inspiration in 3 works of Surakarta palace poets (Wedhatama, Wulang Reh, and Tripama) with the spirit of developing a creative economy in the long term, and creative economic business opportunities based on local wisdom in the global era.



The organizers of the 4th ItaSEAS Conference

Antonia Soriente (asoriente@unior.it)

Pietro Masina (pmasina@unior.it)

Carmencita Palermo (cpalermo@unior.it)



University of Naples “L’Orientale”

http://www.unior.it/ateneo/19014/1/4th-itaseas-conference-2019.html




 

 

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