Annali di Archeologia e Storia Antica
Abstact dei contributi pubblicati
Nuova Serie 19-20
Anne Coulié, I vasi del “Dipylon”: dai frammenti alla bottega
This article proceeds from a conference given in Italian at the University “L’Orientale” in Naples. Its aim is to give a more precise picture of the Dipylon production focusing on the history of the Louvre LG I collection and on the workshop where they were created. Passing from the fragments to the workshop some questions related to the topography of the necropolis, the countage of the fragments, the style and the iconography are raised.
Teresa Elena Cinquantaquattro, La necropoli di Pithekoussai (scavi 1965-1967): variabilità funeraria e dinamiche identitarie, tra norme e devianze
The contribution presents an unpublished sector of the necropolis of Pithecusa excavated by G. Buchner between 1965 and 1967, comprising ca. 261 graves dating from the middle of the 8th to the first decades of the 7th century BC. The purpose of the study is to identify the indicators that, representing a deviation from the ‘norm’, allow to identify specific funerary behaviors and so investigate the topic of cultural and social composition of the S. Montano necropolis, in a diachronic perspective. Imported ceramics, alongside those produced locally, in which appear forms of hybridization, suggest trade relations but also dynamics of osmosis between the Greek community and other cultural components, including certainly the indigenous peoples and those established on the Campanian coasts. The analysis of the funerary rituals and the distribution of these particular markers confirm the Euboean settlement as the epicenter, from the earliest phases of occupation, of a wide network of relations that involves Etruria and Lazio, Tyrrhenian Campania and the Adriatic area.
Melania Gigante, Luca Bondioli, Alessandra Sperduti, Di alcune sepolture della necropoli di Pithekoussai, Isola di Ischia – Napoli. Analisi preliminare dei resti odontoscheletrici umani di VIIIVII sec. a.C. dagli scavi Buchner 1965-1967
This contribution presents the preliminary anthropological analysis of a selected and homogeneous group of tombs from the necropolis of Pithekoussai, referable to the 1965-1967 Buchner’s excavation campaigns. The skeletal record includes both cremated (N=12) and inhumated (N=11) individuals from 22 tombs. As already noted by Becker (1995, 1999), and witnessed by the recorded low weights of the remains, the skeletal material is in a very poor state of preservation, due to the high temperature of the volcanic soil (~70 °C, Buchner – Ridgway 1993) and the presence of cairns. Results indicate that the cremated subsample includes adult individuals only, equally representing both sexes (5 males and 5 females, 2 undetermined). Conversely, among the inhumated, the presence of 6 subadults (from perinatal up to adolescence age) is recorded together with 2 adult males and 3 undetermined sex adult individuals. Grave PTH 944 shows the presence of two individuals (one male and one female), equally represented and thus excluding phenomena of accidental admixture of the burnt remains in antiquity. Interestingly, the inhumated adult male individual of the PTH 950 grave presents the evidence the lower limbs having been in close contact with iron objects (possibly shackles) at the time of his burial. This report describes in details the methodological approach adopted for the baseline analysis of the complex odontoskeletal series from Pithekoussai. This approach and results will support the ongoing more advanced chemical analyses that will contribute to the understanding of the heterogeneous composition and the geographical mobility patterns of the ancient reference community.
Luca Cerchiai, Bruno d’Agostino, Carmine Pellegrino, Carlo Tronchett i, Mirko Parasole, Luca Bondioli, Alessandra Sperduti, Monte Vetrano (Salerno) tra Oriente e Occidente. A proposito delle tombe 74 e 111
The site of Monte Vetrano, at the confluence of Fuorni and the Picentino River valleys, near the main Etruscan settlement of Pontecagnano (Salerno), is one of the most important recent discoveries in the archaeological history of pre-Roman Campania. The burial evidence attests the development of the settlement in the second half of the 8th century BC when it functioned as an aggregator of people and products of the inland. Its prosperity derived from the inclusion into the system of the Tyrrhenian trade which grew with the arrivals of the Greeks on the Campanian coast and the foundations of Pithekoussai and Cumae. The paper focuses on Tomb 111, a female cremation dating to the third quarter of the 8th century BC (Pontecagnano Phase IIB). The bones, together with bronze fibulae and ornaments, an impasto spindle whorl and a burnt fragment of a chevron skyphos, are laid in a bronze cauldron according to the burial customs of the graves found in the heroon by the west gate of Eretria. Addenda are dedicated to the ‘Nuragic ship’ and ‘bull bowl’ from Tomb 74, two precious bronzes imported from Sardinia and the Near East found in the richest female grave yet discovered.
Mirko Parasole, Le coppe “fenicio-cipriote”: note sulla produzione
In this study the author tries to argue an overall analysis of the technologies used for the creation of the so-called ‘Cypro-Phoenician bowls’, by an autoptic analysis of all the artifacts and new-published research. He has attempted to reconstruct the history of the manufacture and the tools used so that he can rebuild a complex production process. In this way, identifying differences and peculiarities, the author tries to contribute to the identification of different productions and to define how these have evolved over time and space.
Vangelis Samaras, An Archaic Marble Sphinx from Ayios Nikitas on Siphnos
Τhis article presents an unpublished marble head from Ayios Nikitas on Siphnos, found by the author in 2010. Despite its extensive damage, it can be argued that the head is dated to the second quarter of the sixth century BC. It probably comes from a votive sphinx staring straight ahead, and seems to be carved by a Parian (or under strong Parian influence) artist. It should be added to a group of works that comprises the kouros from Asclepeion on Paros (Louvre Ma 3101), the Parian gorgon, the ‘Rolley head’ and the sphinxes of Delos (A 583), of Kastro on Siphnos (AMS 2) and of Thasos. These works come from Paros or are linked with Parian sculpture: they share common features, although they are not products of the same sculptor or workshop. Despite her wealth and prosperity during the sixth century BC, Siphnos has yielded only a small corpus of marble in-theround statues of the Archaic period: all have been discovered at Kastro, the Siphnian asty. The Ayios Nikitas head is the first Archaic marble work found away from the asty and the only one for which the exact find-spot is known. It contributes further to the study both of the votive sphinxes and of the Archaic marble sculpture of Paros. Moreover, it seems that this new finding confirms the existence of an extra-urban sanctuary at Ayios Nikitas.
Hans Peter Isler, Il teatro greco. Nascita e sviluppo di un tipo architettonico
The classical plays connected with the names of Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides and Aristophanes were staged for the first time in the theatre of Dionysus but not that whose monumental remains are preserved. This was opened not before 330 BC i.e. some seventy years after the death of the two younger dramatists. A traditional approach to the study of Greek theatre architecture originates from Vitruvius who published his ‘Ten Books on Architecture’ at the beginning of the Augustan period. To Vitruvius goes back the distinction between a Greek theatre and a Roman theatre that he thought were two different architectural types. They are instead two subsequent phases of the same historical process. The oldest Greek theatres date back to the early V century BC. They are characterized by a more or less straight theatron and an irregular orchestra that fit the natural ground as far as possible, but still lacks a stable stage building. Around the middle of the IV century BC the auditorium with a circular base was created, a perfect geometrical figure which then quickly spread. The preserved theatre of Dionysus in Athens has a scenic building with paraskenia that consists of a long room with two protruding wings on the sides. The state of conservation of the ruins is unfortunately incomplete. Also the shortly later theatre of Iaitas (Monte Iato) in Sicily had a scenic building with paraskenia which must have closely followed the model of Athens. It still preserves the original stage that was low. It seems very likely that a similar low stage should be integrated for Athens too. Around 300 BC or shortly after a new kind of scenic building with a high proscenium was introduced. It would have an immediate success in the homeland and in Asia Minor.
Diana Savella, La ceramica comune del santuario settentrionale di Pontecagnano: osservazioni su alcune forme
The large amount and range of common ware found in the Northern Sanctuary in Pontecagnano provides an opportunity to analyze the use of this ceramics in a religious context. Although research is still in progress due to the volume of artifacts, this paper aims to provide an overview of some coarse shapes of pottery that gain a specific meaning. Cooking and storage vessels are often used for food offerings and in the examined contexts become the main focus of the ceremonies, supporting to define a chthonic cultual landscape. Specific shapes, mostly pithoi and jars, appear to be subjects of new functions and used within the chtonian rituals. Likewise clay pipes, maybe made on purpose, take on a specific meaning inside the Demetriac worship in Pontecagnano.
Lorenzo Costantini, Loredana Costa ntini Biasini, Monica Sta nzione, Le offerte di vegetali nel santuario settentrionale di Pontecagnano
During the excavations conducted in 2006 in the northern Pontecagnano sanctuary it was begun an investigation of archaeobotanical character targeted to the precise knowledge of the plant offered during the ceremonies practiced in the sanctuary, both to identify what the main food crops were, and for providing other useful elements to the identification of the deity worshipped in the temple. It took place in two main phases of which the first, directly on the site, aimed at taring and treating archaeological soil samples; the second, at the Bioarchaeology Center of the National Museum of Oriental Art ‘Giuseppe Tucci’ of Rome. The survey in question examined some of the archaeological deposit contexts such as bothroi, containers and storage areas, in which it was believed remains of sacrifices and vegetable offerings could be found dedicated to deities worshipped in the sanctuary attended in several stages between the late sixth and the first half of the fourth century BC. Altogether 75 soil samples were taken from 23 stratigraphic units, for a total weight of about 608 kg of ground. Seeds and organic remains were recovered from 69 of the 75 samples tested, of which 6 resulted sterile. The archaeobotany investigation has allowed to recover 811 carpological remains and 366 fragments of organic matter, residues of food offerings, some of which (98) included cereal seeds, grape seeds and wine grapes used in the preparation of bids. Overall among the recovered plant remains were found 752 (92.73%) kernels of grain, 28 (3.45%) legume seeds, 24 (2.96%) remains of fruits and 7 (0.86%) fragments left unspecified. The charred fragments classified as organic remains were small amorphous masses, devoid of form and structure that, in some cases, included barley seeds, millet / panic and grapeseeds. Two exhibits, better preserved but not intact, had kept the traits of the original spherical shape, other small fragments had a sub-circular shape, such as parts of small donuts. These findings have enabled the identification of other amorphous masses as remnants of food dough used for the production of crackers and / or small cakes.
Gabriella d’Henry, Gale – Galanthis, degna figlia di Tiresia
The article starts from an amber plate found in a tomb of Montesarchio (BN) dating back to the early decades of the IV century BC. There are represented four figures of animals that the author identifies as weasels. The author wonders about the meaning of this animal in the ancient and medieval traditions on the basis of a striking essay by M. Bettini and clarifies its close relationship with the feminine world. Called Gale or Galanthis, the weasel is the daughter of Tiresias and like this can be transformed. Its positive aspect represents it as a protector of births, agile and clever, a caring mother, essential to the Greek and Roman family economy. The animal is however also the subject of a disturbing depiction. Capable of changing sex, it appears endowed with an abnormal sexuality and a lover of wild dance. This aspect is the thread that binds the plate of Montesarchio to the representation of the acrobatic dancer, present in Italiot red figure ceramics, and also depicted on the crater found in another tomb from Montesarchio.
Marco Giglio, Cambi di proprietà nelle case pompeiane: l’evidenza archeologica
The text aims to analyze, through the analysis of archaeological data, the problem of ownership and change of ownership in the houses of Pompeii. The study of private building has often highlighted changes in the spatial organization of a building, which may have modified its plan, expanded or reduced in size through acquisitions or disposals of rooms from other buildings, showing a very high mobility. These changes have always been interpreted as the result of a change in ownership or a change in the social status of the owner. These phenomena are apparently only conceivable on the basis of the archaeological data in our possession. The paper, through some cases emerging from recent excavations in some Pompeian domus, intends to focus on a few elements that can be considered archaeological indicators of domestic rituals that could be connected to any changes in ownership.
Stefano Iavarone, La prima generazione delle Dressel 2-4: produttori, contesti, mercati
The adoption of the Dressel 2-4 type was probably the main morphological change in the tradition of Italic wine containers of the Roman period. This type, an imitation of the Koan amphoras, was gradually introduced during the central decades of the 1st century BC both in the Adriatic and in the Tyrrhenian areas, and then it completely replaced the Dressel 1 in the early Augustan Age. According to the data collected, the ‘first generation’ of the Dressel 2-4 type was characterized by a scarce production, exported mainly in the Eastern Mediterranean, while stamps seem to refer to wealthy Roman merchants, sometimes directly involved or influential in the political and economical spheres. More than technical advantages, this first phase seems to reflect a specific intention to imitate the shape of the Koan amphoras and what it could represent in the Hellenistic trading system as a guarantee of quality, capacity, etc. An exceptional example is offered by the Papyrus Bingen 45, a royal prostagma dated back to the year 33 BC, where the amount / quality of the wine subject to detaxation, annually exportable by a not well identified Roman merchant, was indicated by specifically referring to the ο?νου κερ?μια Κ??α.
Giuseppe Camodeca , Angela Palmentieri, Aspetti del reimpiego di sculture antiche a Napoli. I marmi e le epigrafi del Campanile della Cappella Pappacoda
This paper analyses the importance of the Roman Imperial marble collection of Pappacoda Chapel in Naples. It consists of many masterpiec es, fortunately preserved in their original state and in an unusual architectural context. The authors propose a study of the archaeological and epigraphic profiles of the Roman spolia employed in the bell tower of the Chapel at the beginning of the fifteenth century. The second of the two funerary inscriptions dating to the late Flavian and Hadrianic ages is of special interest: a new carmen in dactylic hexameters of Epicurean content. The elements were chosen with an erudite interlacement of encomiastic nature by the owner of the chapel, Artusio Pappacoda. The research is divided in two layers: the first reflects the archaeological analysis of six marble sculptures; the second relates the relationship between the reuse of the Ancient and the revival of local myths. This valuable archaeological documentation tries to define the historical dynamics related to the survival of the past in Naples at the beginning of the fifteenth century, in order to enhance the social status of a specific character of the Neapolitan court.
Maria Letizia Lazzarini, Su un’iscrizione greca di Brindisi
It is rebutted the proposal to interpret the word ΒΡΕΝΤΕΣΙΝ, appearing in a fragmentary inscription of Brindisi, as Βρ?ντεσιν, a form of a Messapian influence and forerunner of the modern name of the city, and is instead supported the reading Βρεντ?σιν, a parallel form, with a process of reduction of the ending -ιον in –ιν of the toponym Βρεντ?σιον, uninterruptedly attested by literary and epigraphic sources from the V century BC to the late Middle Ages.
Roberta De Vita , Il decreto attico IG II3 1137 per Eumarida di Cidonia
This work deals with an honorary decree for the Cretan Eumaridas from Kydonia, issued in Athens in 228-227 BC, when the city, delivered from Antigonid domination, wished to regain an independent foreign policy. Eumaridas’ merits were specified in the decree: firstly, he had raised the ransom requested for Athenian prisoners, captured – maybe during the ‘Demetriac War’ (239- 229) – and brought to Crete and sold by the Aitolian Boukris, and had loaned them the money to return to their homeland; later, Eumaridas was used as a mediator in Crete by the Athenian embassy, sent to establish friendly relations with «all Cretans, p. (the koinon?), especially with the Cretan cities, Knossos and Polyrrhenia, whose citizens had possibly taken part in Aitolian raids. If, during the Demetriac war, the right of seizing (λ?φυρον) was authorized by these cities to their own citizens, who descended on Attic coasts, the aim of Athenian envoys was that this right be repealed, in order to avoid such ‘incidents’ in the future. This work aims to clarify this debated clause of decree (lines 12-14), by framing and contextualizing the documentation of the turbulent history of Crete in the 3rd century BC.
Marcello Gelone, L’epitaffio bilingue di P. Tillius
Dexiades da Nuceria Alfaterna: una rilettura A recent autopsy of the bilingual epitaph of P. Tillius Dexiades from Nuceria Alfaterna, kept at the National Archaeological Museum of Valle del Sarno, has allowed to notice some mistakes in the reading of the first hexameter of the Greek distich, present in the first publication of the text of the funerary inscription. In the paper it is suggested a new reading based on the interpretation of some letter marks that have survived on the slab surface, quite vanished. This reading allows to correct even the text meaning, in a clearer and more fluent way. This re-edition of the funerary inscription, a singular case of the epigraphic evidence of the ancient Roman colony, constitutes also a chance in drawing some hypotheses on the relationship that subsisted between the grave’s holder and the two dead women remembered in the text; besides it has been useful in making some reflections about the presence of the gens Tillia in Nuceria Alfaterna and on the origin of the family branch to which the dedicant of the funeral monument belonged.
Andrea D’Andrea, Dall’archeologia dei modelli all’archeologia dei dati
Digital technologies are radically changing our way of thinking. We live in a world characterized by networks and infrastructures connecting people and information; in the sciences the researchers are sharing freely their data and the results of their studies. The open science allows us to explore new methods and ways to articipation. Also in archaeology the innovations introduced by ICT are contributing to outline new scenarios for the research. The PC was introduced in the archaeological studies long ago, but currently the new challenge is to share in a simple way all acquired data (texts, reports, forms, photos, images, drawings, maps, etc.) in a global space; this is the scenario of the Internet of Things. In the future we will be able to navigate freely in this sea and discover new data. In order to utilize positively this boundless space the archaeologists need to conform their methods to the rules of the Internet; the conventions are few and, thanks to the semantic technologies, easy to be implemented. The paper deals with these new approaches addressed to exploit the richness of the Internet. The first rule is to publish all kinds of archives and collections by eliminating the knowledge implicit in data and showing precisely the methods (and tools) used to gather the information. In particular the paper analyses the archaeological documentation and the practices followed by researchers for data- capture and data-registration.
Nuova Serie 21-22
Nota Kourou, Mortuary Practices in Early Iron Age Aegean. Family Rituals and Communal Rites
This paper attempts to classify and discuss mortuary rituals archeologically documented in Early Iron Age Aegean. The term mortuary is used here to define rituals that take place after the burial. After going over those that represent family care for the recently dead (marking the grave, purification, perideipnon and other meals, as well as periodic food offerings and libations to the grave) some other particular and not very common rituals denoting chthonic ceremonies over a tomb are discussed. Communal rites representing rituals put forward by the community over earlier graves attributed to important members of the society come next. They include ceremonies at pyre pits inside an enclosure wall and ritual platforms over earlier and sometimes empty graves and they represent a form of ancestral cult. The paper ends by discussing the transition from such forms of family and ancestral cult to “official” chthonic rites in the LG period.
Fernando Gilotta, Frammenti di una cerimonia in musica a Gordion
A fragmentary dinos of Phrygian provenance sheds light on the multifaceted relationships between East Greece and Western Anatolia in the VII cent. B.C., particularly in the field of ‘musical ideology’. References are also made to contemporary homologous evidence from Orientalizing Etruria, with regard to Caere and its most prominent vase painter, the Heptachord P.
Claudio Giardino, Cesare D’Ann ibale, Pizzica Pantanello (Metaponto): la più antica testimonianza di attività metallurgiche dall’Italia meridionale
During the 1970’ and 1980’s excavations conducted by the Institute of Classical Archaeology of the University of Texas at Austin, under the direction of Joseph C. Carter, revealed the remnants of a Neolithic/neolithic settlement at the site of Pizzica Pantanello (two kilometers from Metaponto in Basilicata). The 1983 season focused on the excavation of 25 prehistoric pit features, the only surviving structural manifestations associated with the Neolithic households at Pantanello. The distribution of these pits reveals several concentrations that may infer some form of activity clustering. Although the pits were filled with refuse from the settlement, their initial function based on their contents suggests a connection with storage and industrial activity. Daub samples submitted for radiocarbon analyses returned dates of 4420-4400 and 4250-3700 cal. BC (2 σ). In concordance with these dates, the ceramic assemblage is indicative of two main periods of occupation; the first represented by red painted figulina ceramics typical of the fifth millennium to the beginning of the fourth millennium BC; the final occupation at Pantanello is marked by ceramics of the Macchia a Mare tradition, the earliest expression of the initial stages of the Eneolithic in southern Italy. Of particular interest from this latter phase is the recovery of several vessel fragments displaying exposure to extreme heat, one of which retained traces of molten metal on its rim (Pit D Level 1: n.161-B). This fragment along with two other overfired ceramic sherds (Pit D, n. 162 and Pit C, layer 1, n. 132) likely ceramic kiln wasters and a green stone flake (Pit E, layer 5, n. 222) that was initially retained to be a corroded copper fragment were subjected to archaeometrical investigations. The analyses conducted on these fragments included optical microscopy, X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) associated with energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS). Since Sn values are too low to be recognized by EDS, instead light traces of tin detected by XRF – a very sensitive analytical technique for metallic elements - let suppose the presence of a copper alloy in the molten residues. These analyses ascertained that one of the ceramics, from a conical bowl (n. 161 – B), was indeed a crucible from which copper was poured. This fragment testifies to the beginning of metallurgical activity in the area of Metaponto from the initial stages of the Eneolithic period. The presence of a copper crucible in such an early context offers new insights into the diffusion of metallurgy in the Mediterranean, strengthening the hypothesis of a transmission from the Balkans to southern Italy. The Balkans are rich in copper resources and with evidence for some of the earliest metallurgical developments where the alloying of copper and tin is already attested from the fifth millennium BC. The oldest evidence for the appearance of copper artifacts and metallurgical activities in Italy is to be found especially in central Italy, specifically in Tuscany, Marche and Abruzzo region. Here in conjunction with copper artifacts, metallurgical activities including the alloying of copper can be detected from the recovery of crucibles and slag dating from the end of the fifth millennium to the first half of the fourth millennium BC (Neto-via Verga near Sesto Fiorentino, Tuscany and Santa Maria in Selva, Abruzzo). Later are the presumed slag recovered with Eneolithic ceramics at Pianura Chiusa di Fiumedinisi in the Peloritani, Sicily. Archaeometrical analyses revealed that the supposed “copper slag” from the Acropolis of Lipari was not related to metallurgical processes. In Basilicata a copper artifacts from a Neolithic tomb (Matinelle near Matera) attests to the participation of southern Italian Neolithic societies in the metal trade as well. The confirmation of metallurgical activities at Pantanello attests to the interconnections that links this site to these other Italian regions as one of the earliest manifestations of metal technology. Although removed from copper sources the coastal location of the Pantanello site played a key role as a gateway community for the arrival of ingots for the manufacture of copper objects and subsequently in the transmission of technology and commerce linking it to a broader seafaring network of contacts in the Mediterranean.
Elena Gagliano, Difendere l’ordine con ogni arma. Su un uso umoristico dello schema iconografico dell’Aristogitone di Kritios e Nesiotes
The focus of this paper is an early humoristic reproduction of the iconographical schema of the Aristogeiton sculpted by Kritios and Nesiotes. The figure is painted on a little jug, the so-called ‘Eurymedon oinochoe’, produced in Athens probably for the Etruscan market, but decorated with a scene witch is authentically Athenian. The meaning of this particular use of the iconography, an adaptation of the Aristogeiton schema in a homoerotic scene, can be understood only looking at the decoration of the jug as a whole, and ‘reading’ together the ‘tyrannicide’ with the Scythian archer who is depicted as an evident succumbed antagonist.
Maria Elena Gorrini, Il cosiddetto cratere di Partenopeo del Museo Archeologico di Milano
The paper reconsiders a calyx crater (Milan Archaeological Museum, St. Inv. 6873) which is ascribed to the Lycurgus Painter and so is dated to the first half of the 4th c.BCE. The vase appeared on the Milan antiquities market at auction in 1963, without any indication of provenance. In spite of this, new researches has linked it to the Peucetia area of Apulia. We will analyse the iconography of the depictions on both sides of the crater in order to establish a possible theatrical medium between the myth and the vase depiction, and to attempt an iconological reading of the scenes. Lastly, we hypothesize a possible context for the vase and its message.
Marco Giglio (con contributi di Emanuela Auzino e Marcello Gelone), Un santuario salutare dal territorio di Neapolis: Agnano
Le terme romane di Agnano sono uno dei complessi archeologici più vasti del territorio di Neapolis, situate al confine tra quest’ultima e Puteoli, lungo l’asse viario che collegava i due centri. L’area fu occupata intensamente a partire dall’età augustea, in una zona in cui già esisteva un insediamento in epoca ellenistica. Il complesso archeologico delle Terme di Agnano è composto da quattro distinte aree archeologiche (complesso di età ellenistica, Grotta del Cane, complesso termale di età romana, ponte di età roma- na), che ricadono all’interno dell’area attualmente occupata dalle moderne Terme di Agnano. L’area non è mai rientrata a pieno negli interessi degli studiosi ed è rimasta per lunghissimi periodi ai margini della ricerca archeologica. All’area delle terme di età romana sono strettamente connesse sia le strutture della cosiddetta Grotta del Cane, attualmente inaccessibile per l’elevata temperatura e la presenza di gas venefici, nonché il complesso di età ellenistica. Quest’ultimo è costituito da un possente muro di terrazzamento in blocchi di tufo, su cui sono state fondate alcune strutture di età romana, di non chiara cronologia. Il muro di terrazzamento, parzialmente ricoperto dall’acqua che scorga da una delle fonti che ancora oggi alimentano il complesso termale, era connesso anche in antico ad una fonte, come testimonia un canale, sempre in blocchi di tufo, che lo attraversa. La presenza di un frammento di boccalino a vernice nera con il nome iscritto Igea, rinvenuta negli strati di fondazione del canale, fa ipotizzare la pertinenza delle strutture ad un santuario dedicato ad Asclepio ed alla stessa Igea, in cui venivano utilizzate le proprietà curative delle sorgenti. Il complesso di età romana sorge ad una certa distanza dalle strutture greche ed al momento non c’è traccia di un rapporto diretto tra i due edifici.
The Roman baths of Agnano are one of the biggest archaeological complexes of Neapolis; it’s on the border between this last and Puteoli, along the road that connected the two centers. The area was intensely busy beginning from the augustean age, but the site was jus occupied in Hellenistic epoch. The archaeological complex of Agnano’s baths is composed by four separate archaeological (complex of Hellenistic age, grotta del Cane, thermal complex of Roman age, bridge of Roman age); all these areas are inside the area currently occupied by the modern Thermal baths of Agnano. This area has never reentered to full in the affairs of the researchers and it has remained for long periods to the borders of the archaeological search. To the area of the thermal baths of Roman age they are tightly connected the structures of the socalled Grotta del Cane, currently inaccessible for the elevated temperature and the presence of poisonous gas, as well as the complex of Hellenistic age. This last is constituted by a mighty terrace-wall in blocks of tufo, on which some structures of Roman age have been founded. The wall, partially covered by the water of a source of mineral water, was also in ancient time connected to a source, as it testifies a channel, always in blocks of tufo, that cross it. The presence of a fragment of black glaze ware with the inscribed name Igea, recovered in the layers of foundation of the channel, give us the possibility to hypothesize the pertinence of the structures to a sanctuary devoted to Asclepio and Igea. The complex of Roman age is distant from the Greek structures and, at the moment, there is no trace of a direct relationship among the two buildings.
Stefano Struffolino, Bolli anforari rodii da Tauromenion
They are presented here seven unpublished stamps from Rhodian amphora handles discovered in the storerooms of the archaeological area of Taormina. Except for two samples almost unintelligible, the other finds restore the names of four eponyms and one fabricant that, added to the hitherto scanty evidences from this place, cover a time span ranging from about 178 to 136 B.C., in accordance with data that testify an intensification of the Rhodian trade flow westward, probably in exchange for the Sicilian grain, and with the diplomatic role of the Aegean island in the conflict between Rome and Macedonia. These documents also seem to confirm an harbor industry even in the bay below the mount Taurus, definitely in a complementary way with the most ancient landfall of Naxos, and an active role of these settlements both as bridgeheads for routes to the Strait and to the Tyrrhenian area, both in terms of redistribution and inward diffusion of imported goods. The decrease or disappearance of the evidences, and thus of the Rhodian wine importation, not accidentally correspond with the increasing production and trade of local wines as well as the spread of the Naxian amphorae.
Sergio Cascella, Una coppa in Terra Sigillata Italica dall’Antiquarium di Tindari
This study examines an Arretine cup conserved in the antiquarium of Tindari (Sicily). The vase shows a relief decoration formed by figures representing satyrs and maenads dancing, interspersed with the thyrsi from which garlands hang. Although on this vase it is not preserved the stamp, the iconography of the individual figures and the set of the represented scene seem to indicate that the vase was produced by the potter M. Perennius Crescens. In fact, the same type of decoration is visible on a vase under the brand name of the ceramist above, stored in the Archaeological Museum of Avellino and on other fragments found in several sites in the Mediterranean. The small differences on all of these examples indicate that this representation had many variants which were unknown before this study. This is surely a clue that the study of the ornamental repertoire of this potter is still to be explored. However we think that the present study adds a piece to the panorama of knowledge on the production of M. Perennius Crescens who was the last member of one of the most important handicraft manufacturing of the Julio-Claudian period in Italy.
Giuseppe Camodeca, [- Pi]narius (?) Castus, console nel dicembre di un anno di Antonino Pio: una intricata questione nata da un’erronea lettura di AE 1999, 546 Aesernia
L’autore riesamina l’iscrizione di Aesernia AE 1999, 546; in particolare egli corregge la lettura della data consolare, che riporta un nuovo console [Pi?]narius Castus in carica a dicembre in un anno di Antonino Pio.
The author reconsiders the inscription of Aesernia AE 1999, 546; in particular he corrects the reading of the consular date, showing a new consul [Pi?] narius Castus holding office in the month of December in a year of Antoninus Pius’s reign.
Antonella De Carlo, La carriera di un nuovo procurator ducenario di età domizianea: L. Aurelius L. f. Gal. Flaccus Sempronius Hispanus
L’autore riedita un’iscrizione, non bene pubblicata, trovata nel foro di Cumae, in cui è riportato il cursus di un nuovo procurator prov. Narbonensis di origine ispanica, L. Aurelius L. f. Gal. Flaccus Sempronius Hispanus, poi procurator provinciae Belgicae, unica carica per lui finora nota, riportata in un’iscrizione di Arelate. L’iscrizione cumana consente di conoscere e datare l’intero cursus di Hispanus: primuspilus leg(ionis) VII C(laudia) p(ia) f(idelis) verso il 75-6, tribuno delle cohortes vigilum, urbanae, praetoriae tra il 77 e l’81, primuspilus leg(ionis) XIII Gem(inae) nell’83, ricevendo i doni militari, poi procurator provinciae Narbonensis verso l’84-85, ed infine procurator provinciae Belgicae verso l’86-87. L’iscrizione cumana, così come è stata ricostruita, consente di datare meglio anche la carriera del procuratore di Arelate.
The author re-edits an inscription, not well published, found in the forum of Cumae, which reports the cursus of a new procurator prov. Narbonensis of Hispanic origin, L. Aurelius L. f. Gal. Flaccus Sempronius Hispanus, later procurator provinciae Belgicae, the only one office hitherto known for him from an inscription of Arelate. The epigraph from Cumae allows to know and to date the entire cursus of Hispanus: primuspilus leg(ionis) VII C(laudia) p(ia) f(idelis) around the years 75-6, tribunus of the cohortes vigilum, urbanae, praetoriae between 77 and 81, primuspilus leg(ionis) XIII Gem(inae) in 83 d.C., obtaining the dona militaria, later procurator provinciae Narbonensis around 84-85, and at the end of his career procurator provinciae Belgicae around the years 86-87 d.C.. From the way the Cumae inscription has been interpreted it is now possible to better date the career of the procurator from Arelate.
Nuova Serie 23-24
Luca Basile, Osservazioni sul repertorio vascolare in argilla grezza da Pithekoussai e Cuma in età arcaica: tradizioni e modelli di riferimento a confronto
Some observations about coarse ware vase repertoire from Pithekoussai and Cumae during the Archaic period: comparing traditions and reference models This contribution focuses on some specific aspects of production in coarse ware from the two main Greek centres of the Gulf of Naples. Through the analysis of data from the two establishments we tried to underline the distinctive characteristics of this production. The data taken into consideration have shown that Pithekoussai and Cumae share the same vase repertoire consisting in some specific forms developed during the Archaic period. The starting point is the analysis of the necropolis of San Montano at Pithekoussai where we noticed the evidence of a strong process of constitution of coarse ware repertory beginning probably with the arrival of the Greek colonists in the first half of the 8th century B.C. Furthermore, both establishments seem to refer to the Italic context, especially to southern Etruria and to Etruscan centres of the Campania, such as Capua. The latter was briefly analysed to provide some points of comparison with the production from Pithekoussai and Cumae in order to highlight similarities and differences. The results showed how the components that form the vase repertoire in coarse ware are drawn within a very local tradition in which certain forms perform primary functions related to the preparation, cooking and consumption of meals. The research confirms and underlines the highly composite nature of the material culture of the Greek colonies of Campania, permeated by multiple and contemporary cultural influences in an articulated and deeply mixed structure.
Vincenzo Bellelli, L’arco e la faretra. Nuove ipotesi su una lastra dipinta da Cerveteri
Focus of the present article is an Etruscan painted plaque found out at Cerveteri (Campetti) in the 1940s by Mario Moretti , who published it in 1957 together with other panels that afterwards Francesco Roncalli labelled the “Gorgon series” in his monographic essay. The best preserved of these archaic paintings from Campetti depict the greek myths of Perseus attacking the Gorgons and the Paris’ judgment (Roncalli’s corpus: nr. 43, 46-47). Due to the uncommon subject of the panel nr. 45 of Roncalli’s corpus (a bearded seated man holding a plate toward which a big bird is flying from top left), this plaque of the Campetti’ series has been neglected by etruscologists. The Author re-examines this document from an iconographical point of view on the basis of the identification of three new elements passed unnoticed until now: 1) a bow and a quiver behind the seated man; 2) some pieces of meat laying on the plate; 3) a scene with galloping centaurs armed with tree branches in the upper frieze. At the end of a long demonstration, the character is tentatively identified by the present Author as Heracles and the story as the meeting of the hero with the centaur Pholos. As a matter of fact, this is the only episode of Heracles’ biography in which we can find all together these elements: Heracles represented as an archer, a meat meal, flying birds, centaurs. The article’s last part deals with the contextualisation of the discovery in the framework of the caeretan society of the archaic period.
Giovanni Borriello, Le ceramiche comuni ingobbiate (colour coated) dall’abitato antico di Cuma: dati preliminari e problemi aperti
The Colour Coated Ware identified in the Greek-Roman inhabited extent of Cumae, give us the important information to understanding the local commercial network which has characterized the area during the Roman Imperial period. The presence of different morphological types, and different fabrics – maybe a small amount of a possible local production (fabric 1) – it is the evidence of the economic role conducted by the Phlegraean Fileds and the city of Cumae. The identification of a particular morphological variant, that could be local, it is accredited by the limited circulation that seems be exclusively of this area. One of this shapes is constituted by hemispherical cup with everted rim (type III.2) which doesn’t have an outer circulation. Close to the fabric 1 there’s a second one: fabric 2 is preeminent but of non-local production. The exchanges of this commercial network continued until the end of 3rd and the beginning of 4th century A.D. when occurred a decline phase. The evidences of this decline are well - attested in a less presence of a pottery models characteristic of late roman period.
Giuseppe Camodeca – Umberto Soldovieri, Un’inedita dedica puteolana in esametri a Naeratius Scopius, v. c., consularis Campaniae, e un anonimo poeta di tardo IV secolo
In this paper the authors published an honorary, partly erased, inscription in hexameters, rediscovered in the imperial forum of Puteoli and dedicated to Naeratius Scopius, v. c., consularis Campaniae. Starting from the prosopographical study of the family, they propose a probable dating (363/6 A.D.) and an interpretation of the unclear text in verse.
Luca Cerchiai, Il logos delle origini orientali degli Etruschi: breve appunto sull’immaginario visuale
The contribution is focused on some archaic figured representations that can involve the topos of the Lydian origin of the Etruscans: If this assumption can be accepted, the iconographic documents provide a very interesting evidence to be compared with the mytho-historical tradition of the Etruscan ethnogenesis handed down from the historical sources.
Massimo Cultraro, Alessandro Pace, Un cratere scomparso, dei disegni ritrovati. Nuovi dati sull’autorappresentazione delle élites indigene della Sicilia centro-meridionale
Nuovi documenti inediti rinvenuti nell’Archivio Pigorini dell’Università di Padova consentono di tornare sulla questione relativa alla auto-rappresentazione delle élites indigene della Sicilia centromeridionale. Tale fenomeno, già iniziato con la Tarda Età del Bronzo, ha subito un’accelerazione nel corso dell’Età Arcaica quando il contatto con il mondo greco coloniale ha stimolato lo sviluppo di un consapevole processo identitario.
New documents from the Pigorini’s Archive of the University of Padova allow us to return to the question about the self-representation of the indigenous élites in the southern Sicily. This phenomenon, started by the Late Bronze Age, intensified during the Archaic Age when the contact with the Greek colonial world stimulated a conscious process of identity.
Roberta De Vita, Peregrini e forestieri dall’Oriente greco: l’uso della lingua greca a Puteoli
This work focuses on the foreigners and immigrants in Puteoli and on their use of Greek language in Puteolis’ inscriptions, about 60. The aim is to understand how these people interacted in Puteoli, what their status was (if they were Roman citizens or peregrini), whether they were in transit or living as permanent residents in the city, and finally why some of them wrote their funerary inscriptions in Greek. Some were peregrini and explicitly identified themselves as navicularii in the inscriptions that concern them, while others are recognizable as slaves; others carry the tria nomina, sometimes also registering their origo – these were especially people from the Eastern Greek cities. Thus it would seem that the latter – or perhaps their forefathers – had received the Roman citizenship (or half-citizenship) – for personal merit or for being liberated slaves – in their homeland, before they went to Puteoli. In those cases in which Greek was used in epitaphs, we are led to conclude that these people normally spoke Greek, for they were in the Phlaegrean city only for a short while and temporarily, in order to make business in the harbor and take part in other harbor’s activities. These were foreigners in a Roman multiethnic and cosmopolitan colony, not in a Greek city of Magna Graecia tradition. In addition, some of them were passing by Puteoli on their way to Rome, others went to Puteoli to participate in the Puteolis’ Greek games (the Eusebeia), while others still were there to visit Baiae and its famous thermal baths.
Giuseppe Lepore, Il defunto-eroe: riflessioni sulla privatizzazione del “rituale omerico” in età ellenistica
The aim of this paper is to analyze the revised Homeric Funeral pattern for the heroization of the deceased in the Hellenistic age. Starting from some examples of Epirus (excavations of Phoinike, current Albania) we will try to analyze all the significant elements in the creation of a “heroic” image of the deceased: the shape of the tomb, the use of the cremation ritual, the funerary crown, the choice of the cinerary urn, the goods of tomb and more. The “royal” pattern is now transferred to the private sphere and within a middle class. The deceased seems to “triumph” only within his family and intends to reiterate the virtues of the “Hellenistic citizen”: knight, generous landlord by the aristocratic standard of life, instructed to the “Greek way” in the gymnasium and at symposium. Each element of the ritual, therefore, emphasizes and amplifies the excellence of the deceased, assimilating it to a hero and making a heroon, even if in miniature, of his tomb.
Francesco Marcattili, Afroditi “Nere” e tombe di etère: per un’indagine su Volupia e Acca Larentia
In this paper, the relationship between some shrines of Aphrodite (the Melainìs of the Corinthian Kraneion – the Sosandra of the Athenian Acropolis) and the tombs of famous hetairai (Lais - Leena) is investigated. Then, the analogies are examined between these sacred areas and the Roman religious complex at the border of the Velabrum swamp where, among others, there were the cults of Volupia and Acca Larentia. These analogies, partly already revealed by ancient sources (Lactantius), seem to result from religious reforms implemented by the impulse of tyrannical power in Greece as in Rome during the VI century B.C.; reforms that probably led to a redefinition of the figures and the functions of both Volupia and Acca Larentia. This last one, in its acquired status of scortum, seems to place itself, both from the social standpoint and from the conventions and rules of eros, in an opposite dimension compared to Volupia, realizing a polarity analogous to what occurs in the sanctuaries and in the cult of the Greek Aphrodite and of the Roman-Italic Venus. Finally, the tradition - considered uncertain - of a sacrifice celebrated in April to the sepulcrum of Acca Larentia is re-examined and confirmed. For this celebration the date of 23 April (symmetrical to the Larentalia of 23 December) is proposed, because this day coincided with the dies meretricum, with the festival of the Vinalia Priora, and with the dies natalis of the sanctuary of Venus Ericina extra portam Collinam.
Antonella Massanova, Pontecagnano: lo scavo della strada in proprietà Negri (1966-1967). Nuove evidenze dell’abitato di età orientalizzante
The paper is dedicated to the reconstruction and presentation of an excavation that Bruno d’Agostino did in Pontecagnano between December and March 1966/1967. The investigation brought to light two orientalizing cobblestone road levels, separated by an archeological report, deep about 80 cm, functional to the raising of the road. This is the most relevant evidence of the orientalizing settlement of Pontecagnano. The importance of the discovery is increased by its location near the city’s public area, where at the beginning of the 6th century BC is implanted the sanctuary dedicated to Apollo. The recent level of the road, datable in the first decades of the 6th century BC, probably can be related to the rearrangement of this area of the ancient city, which also included the construction of the sanctuary of Apollo. The lower road, instead, can be related to the first arrangement of the public area during the initial phase of the Orientalizing Age. The paper also presents the materials recovered during the excavation, focusing on the coarse ware pottery which represents an important evidence of the Orientalizing common pottery.
Mauro Menichetti, “The Flag Raising on Iwo Jima”. Motivi iconografici antichi e moderni per la celebre foto di Joe Rosenthal
The famous photograph by Joe Rosenthal bearing the flag raising on Mount Suribachi at Iwo Jima is a perfect sample of the power of images. That image doesn’t show the victory, the final result of the battle so that a few marines displayed in the photograph would be died during the following weeks of war. No matter what was happening on the battlefield, the flag raising by USA managed to go along with the American public’s wishes. History has confirmed the tremendous favor assigned to Rosenthal’s photograph that has become an uncontested symbol of victory and hope. But the story of that photograph continues to product new details and long lasting interest by scholars. Many times scholarship has discussed possible connections of the image, a sort of posed picture imitating classical patterns. For the first time, this research tracks down a few iconographical patterns, ancient and modern, that appear very close. This new point of view doesn’t resolves any “mistery” regarding the photograph by Rosenthal but permits to open the way for further, more indepth studies.
Enrico Angelo Stanco, Il teatro romano di Allifae
The theatre of Allifae was one of the most impressive city monuments from roman times until the institution of the Regno d’Italia ruled by the Savoia in the XIX sec., when the imponent building remains were destroied. After the roman age the monument was used as a quarry and the architectonical elements are actually scattered and reused in the modern city, mostly in the cathedral. In this paper we attempted to reconstruct the original features of the building and his historical fases, collecting and studyng the few scattered sources - literary, monumental, historical, iconographic, archivistic. The theatre was built in the last decades of the first century B.C.; restored in the Flavian age, after the earthquake of 346 d.C. the lower external part of the cavea was used for the insertion of the new thermae Herculis by the rector provinciae Fabius Maximus.
Nuova Serie 25 – Napoli 2018
Emanuele Greco, For an archaeological phenomenology of the society of Hephaestia (Lemnos) from the late Bronze Age to the end of Archaism
After 16 years of excavations at Hephaestia (Lemnos) I present an account of the main novelties which have emerged from the research in the field. The first surprising result was the discovery of a Late Bronze Age settlement dating to between the final III A2 and III B over which a final phase was laid down dating to III C. In the course of the eleventh century BC the settlement disappeared and in the surrounding area was replaced by a new settlement our knowledge of which comes primarily from the ceramic production.
Next, I pass in review the buildings on the so called Acropolis, with new interpretation’s proposals. In the final part I present the large building, just outside the isthmus walls, excavated between 2006 and 2016, and some considerations on the extra-urban sanctuary of the Kabeiroi at Chloi.
Carmelo Di Nicuolo, Lost and found. Rediscovering ancient Kimolos
In this paper focus has been made on the small island of Kimolos (Cyclades). Kimolos is part of the so called ‘Melos island group’ at the western end of the Archipelago. This island with its immense archaeological, geological, mineralogical, historical- artistic and anthropological heritage remained almost completely unknown to this day. Significant evidence of early anthropization, most of the ancient city’s port neighborhoods and sectors of its ancient necropolis, clusters of funerary hypogea in the NE and NW of the island, evidence relating to ancient quarrying activities of different stone materials are highly attractive elements for various scientific fields. Nevertheless, archaeological evidence is particularly exposed to significant wind erosion, strong subsidence and intense geodynamics.
This contribution is a first attempt to provide a brief presentation of the results of the author’s post-doctoral research project at the National and Capodistrian University of Athens. Ancient literary sources, epigraphic documents, published archaeological data, portolan charts and archive documents are discussed and critically presented in a diachronic perspective with the aim to shed light on the roles played throughout history by the communities settled in this corner of the Aegean.
Nadia Sergio, La ceramica greco-orientale di epoca orientalizzante ed arcaica dalla necropoli di Ialysos (Rodi). Un primo bilancio
This study is part of a most important ri-edition project of ialysian burials, digged in Rhodes by Italian archaeologists between 1916 and 1934, and published in Clara Rhodos volumes and in the Yearbook of the Italian Archaeological School of Athens in 1926. It offers a complex picture of the formal repertory and the east-greek pottery, during the orientalizing and archaic period. The examined specimen offers the possibility to know, especially, the local pottery shapes and those of the so called ‘Vroulian’ pottery. The emerged picture has shown that the trade between Rhodes and the North Ionia, particularly with the poleis of Teos and Clazomenae, begins already since late proto-corinthian. The South Ionian pottery is represented, in the graves goods of the second half of the 7th century B.C., by the Ionian bucchero, some Middle Wild Goat vases, dated between the end of the seventh and the beginning of the sixth century B.C., and finally by the so called “samian” ear shaped lekythos, well known in Cyprus. The most numerous fabrics are those from “Dorian” land. The black glaze ware and the ialysian ware, both fine and coarse, are the most represented classes since the second half of the 7th century B.C. and, probably, made on the island of Rhodes. It seems clear that there’s a strong connection between the morphological and decorative repertory, both in the fine ialysian ware and the cypro-phoenician pottery. During the sixth century B.C. the amount of south Ionian fabrics is largest than those from the other East Greek regions. A great diffusion of “cigar” shaped Ionian bucchero alabastra, Fikellura pottery, the so called “samian” bottle or lekythoi, and finally the banded ware, is known together with the Middle Wild Goat style oinochoai. A conjecture about the production centre can be ventured only for few fabrics, like for Samos, or Fikellura pottery, which is supposed to be milesian according to the clay analyses. During the second and third quarter of the 6th century B.C. the Late Wild Goat, the chian and the clazomenian pottery, are largely diffused; from Aeolian region and Lidia come grey ware, and at least a lydion decorated with the marbling technique. In the 6th century B.C. the dorian fabrics are found in significant numbers; now the Vroulian cups and Tell Defenneh situlae made their appearance, while the black glaze pottery and the Nisyros dishes become more frequent. At the same time, the shapes of the ialysian ware, fine and coarse, increase their amount. East-greek banded ware is fairly representative, whether as imported objects or as product of the island workshop. This study of the east-greek pottery from Ialysos has shown a necropolis characterized by the large amount of local ware, made by craftsmen who inspired their work to models that come from Cyprus or from the Syrian coast. In the meanwhile, Ionian products, both from North and South, are diffused. Together with the east-greek pottery we find protocorinthian pottery and some metallic or faience objects. In the first half of the 6th century B.C. corinthian pottery become more frequent among the ialysian grave goods, but in the meantime, objects from aeolian and south-ionian region increase. Attic pottery, in the graves contexts, is diffused only together with late-corinthian one and will be more frequent until the end of the 6th century B.C.
Luca Cerchiai, Società dei vivi, comunità dei morti: qualche anno dopo
The paper intends to propose an updated reflection on the theme of funerary ideology, starting from a 1985 study by Bruno d’Agostino. The study is divided into three parts, relating to important components in the analysis of the necropolis: the active function of ideology; the imaginary in the tomb; the necropolis as an organized social space.
Patrizia Gastaldi, Cuma: prima della polis
Recent investigations on the Cumae territory supply a broad and detailed frame of reference about the history of the Cumae settlement. They enable us to recover the historical documentation on the Cumae territory, survived to predatory diggings, carried out by the first researchers in search of precious findings.
The extensive population of the Clanis valley, from the Eneolithic to the ancient Bronze age (US Navy and Tav excavations), reveals the complementary function of the stronghold of Cumae and the settlements diffused in the coastal area. In these early phases, the coastal region, characterised by large lagoons, has a leading part in the economy of the area, as well as a strategic role in the region. Only during the following periods of the Final Bronze age, we find a nucleate settlement on the stronghold of Cumae, which wields a direct control on leading places and lagoons; the settlement is located on the acropolis whereas the necropolis is situated in eastern plain, near by the southern bank of the lagoon. This situation is confirmed by the discovery of two cremation burials dating back to the end of BF3, in the excavations carried out by the University of Naples “Orientale” and the Centre Jean Bérard. During the early Iron age, the settlement grows stronger, as it is also documented by a stretch of the necropolis (PF1A-1B), brought to light in the excavations carried out by the Centre Jean Bérard. Its life as an indigenous community gets interrupted in the middle of the VIII century, when in the layers covering the indigenous graves, together with sherds of local ‘impasto’ ware, we find also the first examples of Greek ceramic dating back to the late MG II/TG I period. This findings don’t testify the formal beginning of the Greek colony but only the presence of a first Greek settlers in the area.
Daniela Giampaola, Claudia Bartoli, Giuliana Boenzi, Napoli: territorio e occupazione in età pre e protostorica
The many interventions of urban archeology conducted in the historic center of the city, in the Neapolis plateau and along the coastal strip opposite to it, provided relevant data on the modes of land employment between the Neolithic and the Iron Age. These data have been put in relation to the reconstruction of the city’s paleomorphology that rests on the hills, sometimes characterized by steep slopes, sometimes descending towards the level areas of the coast, engraved by valleys and furrows of corrivation. The archaeological finds are interposed to the deposition of eruptive levels due to the volcanic activity in the Phlegrean area and subordinately Vesuvian area. The attendance during the prehistoric age (Neolithic and Eneolithic) is attested in samples of the hills and foothills area which will be then occupied by the epineion of Partenope of the early seventh century BC and by the town of Neapolis founded in the late sixth or early fifth century BC. In all sites, with different solutions of continuity determined by the volcanic events comprised between the Pigna S. Nicola eruption (9201-9533 y calBP) and Agnano Monte Spina eruption (4482-4625 y calBP), an articulated sequence of plowed soil and remnants of temporary occupations has been identified. As for the Bronze Age the most important data come from the coastal strip, where the interventions conducted in connection with the construction of the stations of lines 1 and 6 of the subway of Naples have revealed significant changes in the coastline and have allowed to reconstruct its evolution. The discovery of ceramic contexts associated with stratigraphic sequences of emerged and / or submerged environment is essential to outline the development of the employment in the coastal strip between the Bronze Age and Iron Age periods, for which the elements from the plateau of the ancient city and the surrounding hills are still today very limited.
In this context, we will preliminary present the evidences identified in the area of the Duomo station, located on the beach in front of the slope of the hill on which Neapolis would arise; in the Municipio Station, interested by the inlet occupied during the Hellenistic Roman times by the city’s harbour; and S. Pasquale and Arco Mirelli stations of line 6, located along the coastline between the Pizzofalcone hill and Posillipo promontory.
Rosina Leone, Coroplastica locrese al Museo Nazionale di Napoli: 1. Le figure femminili stanti
In the historical collections of the National Archaeological Museum of Naples there is a significant lot of figurative terracottas from Locri, only partially published in 1926 in the Alda Levi’s catalog: these are some hundreds of ex voto, mainly female figurines, chronologically placeable mostly in the archaic age. The attribution of the terracottas to a specific context of discovery was the subject of debate, from the traditional one to the sacred area of Marasà excavated by Paolo Orsi to the most recently one advanced by Grattarola, to the santuarial context of Parapezza, already investigated by Orsi. The contribution presents the catalog of standing and offering female figures and illustrates some preliminary results of the study currently in progress, with regard to the iconographies attested, the frequency of types and the possible areas of origin of the Locrians clay statuettes preserved in Naples.
Giuseppe Lepore, “Rituali intorno ai piedi”: note sulle pratiche funerarie contro il ritorno del morto
Even in Roman times the belief that spirits of dead people could escape from the grave and persecute those who had not performed correctly funerary rituals and offers was widespread. In this sense, the area of the feet inside burials could therefore acquire a significant symbolic function: the practice of nailing or “weighing down” the feet could constitute a clue which could be linked to the fear of so called “Revenants”. Archaeological evidence from funerary contexts, although related to different cultural and chronological situations, often deals with rituals, measures and preparations carried out “around the feet”: some examples from recent excavations in the Hellenistic-Roman necropolis of Phoinike (Epirus , current Albania) will help to focus on the problem and to propose new perspectives of research about this topic.
Gianluca Soricelli, Celestino Grifa, Sigillate di produzione locale da Pozzuoli
The study of the Terra Sigillata yielded by two ceramic deposits unearthed in Pozzuoli (Rione Terra; via Fascione) and the possibility of performing a complete set of archaeometric analyzes allow us to return on the topic of the production of this pottery class in the Bay of Naples highlighting the morphological and technological differences between the Terra Sigillata manufactured in Pozzuoli and the so called “Produzione A della baia di Napoli” probably manufactured in Naples or in its immediately surroundings (and for which is proposed the term “sigillata neapolitana”). The worshops operating in Pozzuoli made use of clayey raw material outcropping along the Apennine chain and fired their ceramics at high temperatures, often exceeding 900°C, obtaining the sintering of the slip. On the other hand, the neapolitan workshops made use of clayey raw material outcropping in the area of the bay of Naples and fired their products at lower temperatures, hindering the sintering of slips.
Angela Palmentieri, Federico Rausa, Un nuovo dato sulla provenienza campana del rilievo con flamines della collezione Townley
This article offers a re-evaluation of a marble block with a Flamen and Vestalis, originally from Agrigento or Baia and now in the British Museum in London. The british relief of Charles Townley collection joins another relief with a Flamen, in Ravello, to form an imposing public monument of Domitian Age.
Nuova Serie 26 – Napoli 2019
Adriano La Regina, Un aspetto del rituale funerario nel Lazio arcaico: la morte in guerra o lontano dalla patria
Special ritual forms were provided among the laws of the Twelve Tables for the burial of those who died in war or in a foreign land. In these circumstances the mortal remains were brought back to the dead person’s homeland after cremation, and a second funerary rite was allowed. Cremation burials in Rome and other Latin communities dated between the eighth and fifth centuries BC archaeologically confirm this custom. The same funerary ritual is found in Greece, where it had arrived from Hittite Anatolia in the late Bronze Age.
Stefano Garbin, Alcuni esempi di ceramica protogeometrica dall’acropoli di Koukounaries, Paros: considerazioni preliminari
The site of Koukounaries lies on the SW side of the contemporary Naoussa, in the island of Paros (Greece). It was a fortified acropolis in the 12th cent. BC, lasting as settlement from PG to Early Archaic times. This brief report is dealing with some examples of PG fine ware from the so called Upper Plateau, where a Protogeometric and then a Geometric settlement were built upon the previous Mycenaean complex.
The most significant amount of PG pottery was found in dumping pits from levels stretching below houses of Geometric times. The ceramics from 3 of these deposits (namely cups, skyphoi, craters and amphorae) suggests strong artistic and commercial relations with Attica, besides a noteworthy local production. Yet, an interesting connection with the euboean environment is suggested even earlier of the Sub-protogeometric phase. The wealth of this fine pottery, namely of the drinking vessels, confirms the power of the strong families of the protogeometric community, involved in trade operations both with Euboea and Athens. Keeping always in mind that we are dealing with a settlement, the evidence from Koukounaries will offer a new insight in the study of the Parian Protogeometric, and of the Aegaean Protogeometric as well.
Vicky Vlachou, A new Protoattic amphora from Marathon. The regional pottery workshop and the short-distance mobility of artisans in early Attica
The small burial ground excavated in the modern area of Skaleza at Marathon (Attica) has provided for the first time in this region evidence for the circulation and local production of early Protoattic pottery. The new Protoattic amphora gives a physical expression to the close interconnections emerging in the Athenian pottery production, heralding a longer tradition of mobility and interplay of craftsmen and workshops between Athens and the rest of Attica. The series of vessels used during the funerary rituals at Marathon clearly demonstrate the strong ties of this region to Athens. Most vessels seem to have been locally produced, although their form and decoration point to the activity of Athenian potters and painters. Synergies, interconnections and the mobility of potters and painters working during the late 8th and the early decades of the 7th cent. BC look to have been much more influential on regional pottery productions in Attica and beyond.
Martina D’Onofrio, Un altro epos: una rilettura del cosiddetto cratere degli Argonauti del Museo Archeologico di Salonicco
Despite its fragmentary state, the Argonauts’ Krater in the Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki is one of the most impressive vases ever produced in a Corinthian workshop. Dated to ca. 560 B.C., the krater is decorated with the depiction of two episodes related to Argonauts’ encounter with the blind king Phineus in Thrace: the pursuing of the Harpies by the Boreads and the very intriguing representation of Jason healing Phineus’ eyes in the presence of the Dioskouroi. This latter episod is not attested in any literary source and we don’t know any other representation of it on artefacts from the Ancient World. All the four Corinthian vases decorated with depictions of Argonauts’ adventures are in fact very peculiar and the study of their iconography allows for discussions concerning the interconnected dynamics between the epic poetry formation and the creation of a particular image in vase-painting. The analysis of the Argonauts’ Krater iconography, together with a new discussion about the inscriptions labelling its figures and an examination of the literary sources on the various versions of Phineus’ story, shed new light on the meaning of its figurative program.
Albio Cesare Cassio, Nomi di persona sul Cratere degli Argonauti di Salonicco
Some of the personal names on the Thessaloniki crater are misspelled, and Jason’s name is written with a rare graphic convention. A fresh examination of the names on the crater does away with earlier misreadings, and shows that their spelling is neither conditioned by literary texts nor influenced by the writing habits of a non-Corinthian craftsman.
Francesco Nitti, L’acropoli di Cuma: le ricerche archeologiche di Ettore Gabrici del 1910 nel santuario della terrazza inferiore
In 1910 Ettore Gabrici conducted the first state-commissioned excavation on the lower terrace of the acropolis of Cuma, the seat of the socalled sanctuary of Apollo. The aim of these excavations was to find evidences of early indigenous occupation. The excavation method consisted of opening trenches, identifying the different archaelogical layers and stopping only at the natural soil or when the investigated strata were clearly disturbed. All the finds from this campaign were collected in boxes and stored in the National Archaelogical Museum of Napoli. Remarkably, the results of this excavation were almost forgotten for more than a century and only few finds have been published until now. The purpose of this article is to present the reconstruction of the archaelogical activities, based on a copy of the excavation journal preserved in the archive of Soprintendenza Archeologia Belle Arti e Paesaggio per l’area metropolitana di Napoli, as well as to show a selection of finds of the Protohistoric and Early Archaic period. The analysis of materials shows that the lower terrace of the acropolis of Cuma was occupied from the end of the Bronze Age and the beginning of the Early Iron Age. The typology of pottery of this period (consisting for the most part in storage vessels, like jars and small amphorae) clearly refers to a settlement area. A crucial change in the history of the site was determined by the Greeks’ arrival around the middle of the VIII century B.C. The indigenous settlement was destroyed and the acropolis of Cuma became the seat of the Greek gods. Greek materials, from Late Geometric II, testify to the trasformation of the lower terrace. The Author suggests that some of these finds could be interpreted as the earliest votive offerings of the sanctuary. Very interesting is also a series of architectural terracottas that clearly show the monumentalization of the sanctuary between the end of the VII century and the end of VI century B.C.
Claudia Lambrugo, Gela: la necropoli arcaica. Paesaggio funerario, rituali, società e “piccoli principi”
This paper focuses on the results of a recent new examination of the Archaic cemeteries of Gela (founded in Sicily in 689 BC), containing mainly 7th and 6th century burials. Although it mainly deals with an excavation carefully scheduled and directed at the very beginning of the 20th century by Paolo Orsi himself, whose strictness in unearthing and registering the finds is well known, two main difficulties had to be faced and, if possible, solved. The first is strongly connected to the current laws at the end of the nineteenth century for antiquities and archaeological diggings. The second has to do with the different way of approaching data from necropoleis. The research has revealed how the funerary scenario of Archaic Gela is characterized by a relative lack of expensive burial rites and rich grave goods, a well-known tendency observed in almost all Sicilian cemeteries, which in Gela resembles a singular mesotes, rigorously curbing the ostentation of wealth.
In addition, it is to be highlighted an overall lack of interest in distinguishing males from females and displaying ethnic distinctions, even within a mixed and hybrid society. The priority was rather to show the development of a new social structure and the progressive formation of the main family groups. In this respect, a very special attention is paid to a jeunesse dorée, formed by the young sons and daughters of aristocratic ghene in Gela: their exceptionally wealthy graves, containing exotic and prestige goods, large amounts of metal work and imported pottery, clearly demonstrate adults’ claims to elite status and their attempt to exorcise the fear of a sudden disruption in the bloodline. In fact, this marked visibility conferred after death to an elite group of children and adolescents, even if also due to emotional factors, can be interpreted as a compensatory reaction after death for the significant social investment in the offspring by the household. Also interesting is that the chronological range studied (650-550 B.C.) is the same of the rapid Geloan expansion over the surrounding territory, involving the establishment of large estates belonging to aristocratic families and the foundation of the subcolony Akragas. Certain changes in the funeral customs can also be correlated with these events.
Benedetta Sciaramenti, Questioni di forma: il corpo di Niobe nella produzione ceramica italiota e nella cultura ellenistico-romana
This paper seeks to explain how Italic people reconceive Greek myths in order to develop their own mythological imagery. We chose Niobe as our case study as it provides the opportunity to fully grasp the underlying meaning of the large number of scenes represented on pottery from Italic sites. The images on these artifacts often symbolize metamorphosis and show a new way of representation of this concept. This study could also help advance our understanding of the Roman later develpment in the representation of metamorphosis, both in art and in literature.
Enrico Giorgi - Michele Silani, Pompei, prima della Casa di Obellio Firmo: le strutture di età arcaica e sannitica
Within the research agreement between the Pompeii Archaeological Park and the University of Bologna, since 2016 a new research project on the House of Obellio Firmo (IX, 14, 4) has been carrying out, aimed at the comprehension of building complex’s evolution before the crucial date of the 79 AD. With the same objectives of the Plan for Knowledge of the Great Pompeii Project, geophysical and topographical surveys allowed the verification of some research hypotheses, partially derived from previous studies and from new analysis of the architectures and archival documents, as the original division into two housing units, represented by the two existing atriums in the house. In particular, the geophysical mapping in the whole accessible spaces fostered the understanding of the buried evidences regardless of the planimetric segmentation of the house.
The presence of significant anomalies referable to buried structures detected in the garden of the peristilium stimulated the opening of trial digs. The archaeological investigations conducted between 2017 and 2018 confirmed the existence of hidden structures distinguished from the domus of Obellio Firmo, and referable to three main phases: 1) the high-imperial structures cut off in order to enlarge the garden, 2) the remains of two buildings of Samnite age and 3) some fragments of structures of archaic period.
The structures of the Samnite age seem to confirm the strong phenomenon of urbanization and building occurred between the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC. The archaic evidence, which represents the most eastern finding in urban area, suggests a planning of the space according to a regular design, in line with the new data emerging from the recent research, that recognize a defined organization of the urban space since the VI sec. BC.
Ignazio Tantillo, «Le orme dell’imperatore». La proscinesi tra immaginario retorico e pratiche cerimoniali
The study of the Roman court ceremonial can rely on a group of evidence which has not yet been adequately exploited. This evidence consists of requests and petitions preserved mainly (but not only) in the Egyptian papyri. The analysis of certain specific aspects of their formulary - the reference to the sovereign’s feet or to his “footprints” - provides in fact a series of parallels, both on the plane of representation and on that of practice, to the evolution of rituals through which people addressed, petitoined and paid homage to the prince during the Roman empire. The formulary of such documents can be considered a rhetorical transposition of what happened concretely (or what was thought to happen) in the imperial ceremonial, while the habit of placing petitions at the foot of the statues confirms that between the imaginary and the practice there was a direct and strong link.
Francesco Muscolino, Tombe, sarcofagi e aree cimiteriali a Taormina in età romana e altomedievale
The evidence on the Roman burial customs in Taormina is rich but discontinuous. House-tombs, sepulchres of various type, inscriptions, sarcophagi and urns contribute to outline the picture of a city that, also because of the colonial deduction of early Augustan age, seems to conform itself to purely Roman funerary customs, at least in the higher social classes. Much scantier is, so far, the evidence concerning the late Antiquity/early Middle Ages. Nevertheless, from the funerary areas installed in classical monuments, it is possible to draw interesting information on the changed urban dynamics.
Chiara Blasetti Fantauzzi, Il municipium di Marruvium e il suo territorio: sviluppo urbano e dinamiche insediative tra la tarda repubblica e la media età imperiale
The analisis of archaeological evidence from the urban center of Marruvium has shown the development of the monumental centre of the city during the second half of the first century BC, probably during the Augustan period. The oldest structures, on the other hand, belong to the creation of the municipium, immediately following the Social Wars. These conclusions are supported by the development of the territory, where field survey has shown an early development of villas during a phase that seems to coincide with the beginning of the municipium. A very different form of occupation of the territory dates between the end of the first and the middle of the second century AD, which seems to reflect the agrarian divisions following the draining of the Fucine marshes carried out by Trajan and Hadrian.
Cristiano Benedetto De Vita, Daniela Musmeci, Alessandro Terribile, Ancient Appia Landscapes: paesaggi antichi e risorse attuali. Alcuni casi studio dal territorio di Beneventum
This paper discusses briefly some reflections related to the “Ancient Appia Landscapes” Archaeological project, carried out by the University of Salerno, in collaboration with the Soprintendenza Archeologia, Belle Arti e Paesaggio per le province di Caserta e Benevento. The project aims at the reconstruction of the Benevento territory in its anthropic and environmental elements, from a historical and archaeological point of view. The identification of ancient relics of the landscape has been made through the use of cartography in the broadest sense of the word, from the most recent supports to the historical cartography, geophysical surveys, geomorphological and archaeological maps. Cartography is therefore intended as a means of representing a reality structured on multiple time scales, readable through a regressive approach which is able to seize the stratification of anthropic and envi identification of ancient agrarian assets through surface surveys and cartographic analysis can highlight historical and cultural values of landscapes, translating them into a resource for the community. In this sense, the ancient Via Appia between Beneventum and Aeclanum represents the leitmotiv of a highly conservative landscape. The reconstruction of this ancient path could become particularly relevant in light of recent approaches to the enhancement of historical roads, which have been recognized as fundamental elements in the structuring of communities and territorial dynamics over time. The Via Appia could become a cultural resource with which it is possible to recover, develop and enhance vocations, geographical and productive specificities, aiming at planning in agreement with local authorities and communities. In this way, an open approach to the integration of territorial resources can transform cultural heritage in a catalyst for a socio-economic sustainable development.
Angela Bosco, Andrea D’Andrea, Francesca Forte, Fabrizio Pesando, Rosa rio Valentini, L’intervento a Villa Sora di Torre del Greco (NA)
Recently the villa maritime of Sora at Torre del Greco (Italy), destroyed by the Vesuvius in 79 A.D., has been surveyed by laser scanner and close-range photogrammetry. After the data-processing, the digital replica has been cleaned of all the modern elements. Currently the 3D survey offers a view of the still existing buildings and the related archaeological levels. The villa, dated to the first century A.D., included a large apsidal hall, a long peristyle, paved in polychrome marble, and other rooms richly decorated with frescoes. The area, explored since 1797, has been surveyed by several archaeologists or architects. Notwithstanding, the site has not been the subject of a systematic excavation and much still remains buried. In order to integrate the 3D survey with the missing parts, all the old surveys have been digitized, scaled and overlapped to the last digital survey. The integration shows that some archaeological features don’t match probably because the maps refer to different levels in the investigations or in the interpretation of the archaeological finds. Unfortunately, the still visible buildings, recently surveyed, don’t help to overcome those inconsistencies. Nevertheless, by starting from the 3D model and from the analysis of the masonry of the villa, a reconstruction of the Villa can be suggested. The paper deals with the methodological approach followed in the re-examination of the previous documentation, in the superimposition of the old and new surveys and in the virtual restoration of this important ancient maritime complex still insufficiently investigated.