International Association of Buddhist Studies (IABS)
Founded in 1976The International Association of Buddhist Studies (IABS) is a learned society dedicated to promoting and supporting scholarship in Buddhist Studies in a spirit of non-sectarian tolerance and with scientific research and communication as preeminent objectives. Membership is open to scholars of all academic disciplines.
Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies
The Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies promotes the academic study of Buddhist texts, societies, theories and practices within the University. It is a Recognised Independent Centre (RIC) of the University of Oxford and was established in 2004. It is committed to maintaining the highest academic standards.
Numata Centre for Buddhist Studies of Hamburg University
The University of Hamburg's Center for Buddhist Studies promotes the development and coordination of academic resources on Buddhism in three focus areas: teaching, research, and academic exchange/public outreach. The thorough and promising education in Buddhist Studies offered at the University of Hamburg is based on the reading and comprehension of Asian primary sources and historical-philological methods. The Center strengthens the curriculum of Buddhist Studies at the University by offering additional, specialized courses and seminars, as well as its Summer School in Buddhist Studies.
Pali Text Society
The Society was founded in 1881 by T.W. Rhys Davids "to foster and promote the study of Pa?li texts". It publishes P?li texts in roman characters, translations in English and ancillary works including dictionaries, a concordance, books for students of P?li and a journal. Most of the classical texts and commentaries have now been edited and many works translated into English. The Society aims to keep almost all its publications in print and to produce at least two new books and a volume of its Journal each year. The Society is non-profit making and depends on the sale of its publications, on members' subscriptions and on the generosity of donors. Alongside its publishing activities, it provides Research Studentships for a number of people in a variety of countries who are working in the field of P?li studies. It also supports the Fragile Palm Leaves Project, which is involved in the conservation and identification of Southeast Asian manuscripts.
SOAS Centre for Buddhist Studies
The Centre of Buddhist Studies’ key mission is to be a catalyst for learning, research and outreach on Buddhism in Asian societies and globally, past and present. The CBS brings together academics and students from SOAS, as well as from other academic institutions and the public at large, through lectures and workshops of international calibre. This not only brings energy and new ideas, it also enables new audiences to appreciate and understand some of the cutting-edge research currently carried out on Buddhism.
The International Dunhuang Project: The Silk Road Online
IDP is a ground-breaking international collaboration to make information and images of all manuscripts, paintings, textiles and artefacts from Dunhuang and archaeological sites of the Eastern Silk Road freely available on the Internet and to encourage their use through educational and research programmes.
The Japanese Association of Indian and Buddhist Studies
With its current membership standing at over 2,400 people, The Japanese Association of Indian and Buddhist Studies (JAIBS) is one of Japan’s largest academic associations in the Humanities and Social Sciences. Our association aims at contributing to the development of research on Indian and Buddhist Studies within Japan, and to cooperate with scholars in related fields throughout the world in order to promote the development of intellectual achievement in the world at large. In addition to the membership of individual researchers, our association includes Universities and Colleges with courses or departments in Indian Philosophy or Buddhist Studies as Affiliated Schools, as well as research centers and research organizations incorporated as Affiliated Organizations.
The Early Buddhist Manuscripts Project (EBMP)
The Early Buddhist Manuscripts Project was founded at the University of Washington in September 1996 to promote the study, edition and publication of twenty?seven unique birch?bark scrolls, written in the Kharo??h? script and the G?ndh?r? language, that had been acquired by the British Library in 1994. Further discoveries have greatly increased the number of known G?ndh?r? manuscripts, and the EBMP is currently involved in the study of seventy?six birch?bark scrolls (primarily in the British Library, the Senior Collection, the University of Washington Libraries and the Library of Congress) as well as numerous smaller manuscript fragments (in the Schøyen Collection, the Hirayama Collection, the Hayashidera Collection and the Bibliothèque nationale de France). These manuscripts date from the first century BCE to the third century CE, and as such are the oldest surviving Buddhist manuscripts as well as the oldest manuscripts from South Asia. They provide unprecedented insights into the early history of Buddhism in South Asia as well as its transmission to Central Asia and China. The research results of the EBMP and translations of the manuscripts are published by the University of Washington Press.
The OpenPhilology Project
The OpenPhilology Project funded by an ERC Advanced Grant in 2016 and hosted by the Principal Investigator Jonathan Silk’s institution Leiden University aims at creating a novel environment for the philological study of buddhist s?tra literature through the use of Digital Humanities tools. In the words of the research’s section introduction: “Buddhist s?tras are fundamental sources for understanding the beliefs that once dominated, and largely continue to dominate, Asian societies. But classical philological approaches to these texts, assuming an Ur-text and linear development, misrepresent their nature and obscure their history. Like oral literature the s?tras are authorless and textually fluid, their content formulaic and modular, and the situation complicated by their huge volume and the linguistic diversity of their extant versions. Their fluidity and the absence of an Ur-text makes traditional stemmatic editing inappropriate. Other options are also unacceptable: eclectic editions conflate distinct sources, creating texts which never existed historically, while exclusive focus on a single version ignores the tradition’s true richness.”
Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies
The Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies is the organ of the International Association of Buddhist Studies. The JIABS welcomes scholarly contributions in all areas of Buddhist Studies. A double-blind peer-review process is used to ensure the high academic quality of all contributions. From Volume 38 (2015) onwards, the JIABS is published by Peeters Publishers in Leuven. Articles become open access 24 months after publication and can be accessed
Indogaku Bukky?gaku Kenky? (?????????) Journal of Indian and Buddhist Studies
Journal of Indian Philosophy
The Journal of Indian Philosophy publishes articles on various aspects of classical and modern Indian thought. Coverage ranges from close analysis of individual philosophical texts to detailed annotated translations of texts. The journal also publishes more speculative discussions of philosophical issues based on a close reading of primary sources. (open access from 1971)
Journal of the Pali Text Society
You will find a list of all back Volumes of our Journal as well as their contents. There are also the Acrobat versions of Volumes I - XXVIII (1882 - 2006), which you may download for free.
Indo-Iranian Journal (1957-2008)
Journal dedicated to research to Indo-Iranian studies, among which there are buddhism related articles.
WSTB Wiener Studien zur Tibetologie und Buddhismuskunde
Vienna Series for Tibetan and Buddhist Studies
The Link: brings to the catalogue of the WSTB where you can browse the latest publications and the archive. This series is also Link:ed to the The Association for Tibetan and Buddhist Studies (ATBS) of Wien University’s Department of South Asian, Tibetan and Buddhist Studies.
PHILOSOPHY EAST AND WEST: A QUARTERLY OF COMPARATIVE PHILOSOPHY
Promoting academic literacy on non-Western traditions of philosophy, Philosophy East and West has for over half a century published the highest-quality scholarship that locates these cultures in their relationship to Anglo-American philosophy. Philosophy defined in its relationship to cultural traditions broadly integrates the professional discipline with literature, science, and social practices. Each issue includes debates on issues of contemporary concern and critical reviews of the most recent publications.
Journal of the International Association of Tibetan Studies (JIATS)
Revue d'Etudes Tibétaines
The Revue d'Etudes Tibétaines is a twice-yearly (October and April) journal published by the UMR 8155 (CRCAO) of the CNRS, Paris. The Director of the RET is Dr Jean-Luc Achard, and the editorial board includes Drs. Alice Travers (CNRS) and Charles Ramble (EPHE). All contributions are peer-reviewed and may be submitted to the editors in digital format at the following email address: firstname.lastname@example.org All back issues are available as free PDF downloads. You will need to have Adobe Acrobat Reader installed to view and print the files. Please send us a short email to say whether this service is of interest and utility to you. Click here to read an introduction to the journal in French.
Sanskrit lexicons prepared since 1994 by the Institute of Indology and Tamil Studies, Cologne University. The 36 dictionaries are organized primarily by the secondary language (English, German, etc.), and then by date of publication (1832 till 1976). Here is the Link: to the homepage https://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de. We, however, suggest the three dictionaries below:
Monier-Williams Sanskrit Dictionary
The digital version of Monier-Williams Sanskrit Lexicon (2008 revision) by Köln University. It allows the research through Harvard-Kyoto input (for which see here: https://www.sanskrit-lexicon.uni-koeln.de/monier/help.html) or SLP1 and ITRANS only, but Output may be displayed in standard Roman letters using the same transliteration scheme as the input, a traditional Romanization (using either Unicode or CSX fonts), or Devanagari (with an appropriate Unicode font).
Otto Böhtlingk & Rudolph Roth, Grosses Petersburger Wörterbuch
The digitalized Sanskrit-German dictionary published in St. Petersburg in 1855
Edgerton Buddhist Hybrid Sanskrit Dictionary
A cross-referenced dictionary of the Sanskrit Language with entries from M.-W. and Amarako?a lexicon. Easy to use, it allows search through International Alphabetic Transliteration of the Sanskrit language (IAST) and fast grammar checks.
THL Tibetan to English Translation Tool
Content: Hosted by The Tibetan and Himalayan Library (see below: http://www.thlib.org/). It allows research of single words or strings of text both through Wylie transliteration or Tibetan Unicode.
Content: a cross-referenced dictionary which contains entries from featured dictionaries:
- The Rangjung Yeshe Dictionary with contributions from Erik Pema Kunsang, Jim Valby, Ives Waldo, Matthieu Ricard, Richard Barron, and others
- The Tshig Mdzod Chen Mo
- The Monlam Grand Tibetan Dictionary
Esukhia is a platform that offers online or in-person Tibetan language lessons. Teachers and professionals in Tibetan language and literature will find numerous aids for research, as well as the collaboration of buddhist scholars. In the words of the introduction: “We also work with methods & materials to support teachers of Tibetan. We’re bridging modern pedagogies & traditional contexts to benefit student learning, while offering jobs & training to strengthen professional development opportunities. At the professional level, we’re tackling some of the biggest technological challenges in order to serve Tibetan Buddhist scholarship & Tibetan-speaking communities at large. That includes readability & word-editing tools; NLP; digital libraries; and more…”
Rhys Davids & Stede, The Pali Text Society’s Pali?English Dictionary
The digitalized version of Pali Text Society’s Dictionary: The Pali Text Society's Pali-English dictionary, Chipstead, 1921-1925. The "Additions and Corrections" included with The Pali Text Society's Pali-English dictionary have been applied to the data when this text was converted into a database. The Pali Text Society's Pali-English dictionary has many accented characters. In order to display these uncommon roman characters with diacritics a Unicode font must be installed. Information and instructions are available on the Font help page.
Dictionary of Pali Proper Names
OCBS Online P?li Courses
If you want to familiarize with or deepen your knowledge of P?li language, the Oxford Centre for Buddhist Studies offers 3 level courses in P?li and a P?li reading class held by Richard Gombrich and Alexander Wynne. Previews of the courses are also available at the same Link:.
The most up-to-date resource on g?ndh?r? language and literature. Stefan Baums and Andrew Glass, main researchers of a Bavarian Academy of Science and Humanities project that started in 2012 and will last until 2032, offer a g?ndh?r? related information’s hub divided for macro-areas:
- Catalog of : 386 manuscripts and manuscripts’ fragments; 1145 inscriptions; 896 administrative documents; 336 coin legends , for a total of 2763 easily accessible items of research.
- Dictionary: for a total of more than 11000 word tokens. The dictionary is in constant development and completed by text references. This is the most valuable instrument of lexical research in gandhar? now available.
- Bibliography: an up-to-date vast bibliography on G?ndh?ra related research fields (archaeology, buddhism, epigraphy, history, linguistics, textual criticism etc.). Of any given entry, a useful hyper-reference will redirect you to the related worldcat (bibliographic catalog) file or to the open access document itself.
- Blog: the blog page is periodically updated with news and interesting infos.
- (available on blog) Outline of G?ndh?r? Grammar 2019 by Stefan Baums (https://stefanbaums.com/baums_grammar_outline.pdf, made available by https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nd/4.0/). This useful work is constantly updated from new data emerging from the parallel textual study.
Tocharian (A and B):
The Tocharian lessons, with glosses and translations etc., were written by Dr. Todd B. Krause. A series of 12 (easily printable or PDF downloadable) lessons on both Tocharian A and Tocharian B in the frame of the EIEOL (Early Indo-European Online Lessons) project of the Language Research Center of the University of Texas at Austin. Tocharian language, the most eastern old IE language, is known through buddhist texts that are mainly dated between 6th and 8th century A.D.
Buddhist Digital Resource Center (BDRC)
The Buddhist Digital Resource Center (formerly Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center TBRC) is a nonprofit organization dedicated to seeking out, preserving, organizing, and disseminating Buddhist literature. BDRC was founded as the Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center in 1999 by E. Gene Smith (1936-2010). Since its founding, BDRC has located, digitized, cataloged, and archived over 15 million pages of culturally significant Buddhist works. BDRC has ongoing operations to digitize vulnerable manuscripts and block prints in China and India and it supports the digitization of Tibetan publications in China. Joining digital technology with scholarship, BDRC ensures that the ancient wisdom and cultural treasures of the Buddhist literary tradition are not lost, but are made available for future generations.
GRETIL - Göttingen Register of Electronic Texts in Indian Languages
The Göttingen Register of Electronic Texts in Indian Languages (GRETIL) is a resource platform providing standardized machine-readable texts in Indian languages that have been contributed by various individuals and institutions. GRETIL was originally intended as a cumulative register of the numerous download sites for electronic texts but has shifted its focus to securing and documenting the efforts to encode these texts. It does so by providing the contributions of varying sources and quality in an appropriately normalized way, with the minimum requirement being that full text search for each language is possible across the whole corpus without any additional conversion.
Thesaurus Literaturae Buddhicae (TLB)
The Thesaurus Literaturae Buddhicae (TLB) is a multilingual presentation of Buddhist literature sentence by sentence in Sanskrit, Chinese, Tibetan, English, etc. developed by Oslo University. The Thesaurus is dedicated to the scholar Étienne Lamotte on whom a whole generation of Buddhist scholars depends for his immense work.
The Tibetan and Himalayan Digital Library (THDL).
The TibetanandHimalayan Digital Library (THDL), hosted by University of Virginia, is a publisher of websites, information services, and networking facilities relating to the Tibetan plateau and southern Himalayan regions, run by an international team of scholars from Universities and private organizations around the world. THDL promotes the integration of knowledge and community across the divides of academic disciplines, the historical and the contemporary, the religious and the secular, the global and the local. Content of THDL includes publications, research resources, language learning materials, and a gazetteer.His structure consists of five overarching domains: Collections, Reference, Community, Tools, and Education. It includes then collections of texts, videos, images, maps, and a Tibetan dictionary, that combines many individual dictionaries in one and allows for charting the historical usage of terms, as well as their contemporary spoken usage via recordings.
84.000 is a global non-profit initiative to translate the words of the Buddha and make them available to everyone. His primary focus for translation is the canonical Tibetan texts included in the Kangyur and Tengyur. Translator teams produce translations for an audience of educated but non-specialist readers, practitioners, and people looking for insight from the Buddha’s words, as well as providing the clear and comprehensive detail required by scholars. Brief introductions, notes, bibliographies, glossaries and other reference materials are included within each text.
ADARSHA: “Clear mirror”
ADARSHA is an app that lets you read and conduct searches of ancient documents in a digital format. There are three main categories of texts: (a) Kangyur (the words of the Buddha translated into Tibetan) ; (b) Tengyur (commentaries by Indian scholars translated into Tibetan) ; and (c) Tibetan Buddhist scriptures. It allows fast searches of all texts as well as by title or other cataloging information, and allows filtering of results. Readers can also view texts according to the catalog, organized by pitaka and title of the text. Searches can be made in Unicode Tibetan or Wylie, and there are summaries of the scriptures for the convenience of the academic community. His Holiness the 17th Karmapa, Ogyen Trinley Dorje, named the software ADARSHA (Sanskrit), which means “clear mirror,” with the hope that users will be able to clearly see their own minds reflected in the scriptures as if they were looking at a clear reflection in a mirror.
Resources for Kanjur & Tanjur Studies (rKTs)
Resources for Kanjur & Tanjur Studies (rKTs) is dedicated to making research on Tibetan Buddhist canonical collections openly accessible. The website provides comprehensive tools for studying canonical literature in more than 50 Kanjurs and manuscript collections, such as online catalogues, searchable e-texts, and an extensive archive of images of Tibetan manuscripts as well as secondary sources. The various databases are compiled and maintained by the members of the Tibetan Manuscripts Project Vienna (TMPV), located at the Department of South Asian, Tibetan and Buddhist Studies, University of Vienna. For enquiries about individual collections or questions of a more general nature, please use the contact page.
The Nepalese-German Manuscript Cataloguing Project (NGMCP)
The Nepal-German Manuscript Preservation Project (NGMPP) was founded in 1970 under an agreement between His Majesty's Government of Nepal and the German Oriental Society, and was financed by the German Research Council (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft). The Project was established to preserve Nepal's extraordinary wealth of old manuscripts, blockprints and historical documents on microfilm. The text material encompasses the various branches of Hindu and Buddhist literature, and is thus of significance far beyond the boundaries of Nepal. Many of the manuscripts, in some cases close to a thousand years old, are heavily damaged or on the point of disintegrating. A number of the manuscripts filmed represent the oldest, or even the only preserved copy of a work. The Nepalese-German Manuscript Cataloguing Project (NGMCP) was launched in April 2002. Its main purpose is to prepare a comprehensive descriptive catalogue of the more than 180,000 Nepalese manuscripts microfilmed under the Nepal-German Manuscript Preservation Project (NGMPP). There are currently three resources available: The Catalogue of Indic manuscripts, The Descriptive Catalogue (MediaWiki) and The Catalogue of Tibetan Manuscripts.
The Tibetan Studies Collection
The Tibetan Studies Collection at Columbia University comprises nearly 15,000 volumes of Tibetan-language texts. In addition to titles received in bulk through SACAP (successor to the PL480 program), the Starr Library actively orders titles published in Tibetan regions of China, and from commercial vendors covering India, Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim, and other areas. The Starr Library also actively collect Chinese and Western-language materials on Tibetan-related subjects. Their effort is focused on preserve and make accessible rare documents for the study of Tibetan history since the 17th century, as well as several important archival collections. The Library also collects material objects for the study of Tibetan cultural history
Tibet Resources, Digital Collection of University of London, SOAS
The Archives & Special Collections at the SOAS Library specializes in the collection of archives, manuscripts, and rare books relating to Africa, Asia, the Middle East and beyond. Broadly speaking, the collections reflect the British interaction with Africa and Asia over the last 250 years. They include archives of missionary societies, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) as well as campaign groups and business organizations. Collections include papers of individuals, including diplomats, campaigners, and academics.
Library of Tibetan Works and Archives
The Library of Tibetan Works and Archives (LTWA) is a Tibetanlibrary in Dharamshala, India. The library was founded by Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama on 11 June 1970, and is considered one of the most important libraries and institutions of Tibetan works in the world. The library contains sources which were relocated from Tibet during the 1959 escape, including important Tibetan Buddhist manuscripts and archives related to Tibet's history, politics, culture and even art. It possesses more than 80,000 manuscripts, books and documents; over 600 thangkas, statues and other artifacts of Buddhist heritage; 10,000 photographs; and many other materials. The directors have included Geshe Lhakdor, and Geshe Sonam Rinchen had also been scholar-in-residence. The primary objective of the library is to provide a comprehensive cultural resource of the highest standard and to promote an environment to facilitate research and the exchange of knowledge.
Tocharian Manuscripts from the Berlin Turfan Collection (from TITUS Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien)
This is a preliminary internet edition of the Tocharian manuscripts that are preserved in the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin - Preußischer Kulturbesitz as part of the Turfan collection of the Berlin-Brandenburgische Akademie der Wissenschaften. For using the manuscript images as sources in any kind of publication please contact the Oriental Department of the Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin .
The data as available from this server consist of both digitized images and texts (transcriptions were prepared by Christiane Schaefer, transliterations by Tatsushi Tamai, digitizing and transliterations by Katharina Kupfer). For the time being, only parts of the collection can be made available.
Chinese Buddhist Electronic Text Association (CBETA) Project
Chinese Buddhist Electronic Text Association, an online research platform for the study of Chinese-language Buddhist canonical and extra-canonical materials. Hosted by the Dharma Drum Institute of Liberal Arts in Taiwan.
T?y? Bunko ????
T?y? Bunko (The Oriental Library), Tokyo, is a library and research institute dedicated to the study of Asian history and culture. T?y? Bunko holdings contain many valuable historical sources and rare materials, among which is the Kawaguchi Ekai Collection of Tibetan Buddhist scriptures (http://126.96.36.199/Database/KawaguchiTop-e.html) and the Digital Silk Road Project (http://dsr.nii.ac.jp/toyobunko/index.html.en).
Digital Silk Road Project (a digital archive of T?y? Bunko)
Gandhara Connections Project
The Gandhara Connections project is a three-year initiative by the Classical Art Research Centre (University of Oxford) to pool knowledge and stimulate new insights into Gandharan art and its Link:s to Greece and Rome. These webpages are intended to offer a variety of permanent resources for study by researchers of all kinds, from specialist academics to students and everyone else who is fascinated by Gandharan art. They will also contain information about our international workshops and other events.
Mandala > Kmaps
The Place Dictionary created by University of Virginia allows searching for geographical features of all types in Tibet and the Himalayas, contemporary and historical, as well as natural and cultural.
Institute of Buddhist Dialectics (IBD)
The Institute of Buddhist Dialectics (IBD) was founded in 1973 by His Holiness the Dalai Lama. The Institute is a place where Tibetans are striving to maintain their country’s strong and age-old peaceful spiritual, philosophical and cultural traditions, and to fulfill the needs of the Tibetan community for trained personnel for schools, colleges, and other government and non-government institutions. Before the founding of the Institute of Buddhist Dialectics (IBD), children in Tibetan schools in exile mainly focused on modern education, while monks and nuns in exile engaged only in religious studies and activities. There was no Tibetan institute providing a combination of traditional and modern education aimed at addressing the new educational needs that arose for many young Tibetans in the upheaval of exile.Then his innovative purpose has been to offer both traditional Tibetan disciplines and modern subjects, combining the inner and outer sciences. To create a learning center where young Tibetans with a good modern educational background could pursue a broad curriculum which integrates Buddhist philosophical studies with modern educational pursuits.To produce teachers, scholars, writers, and researchers in the fields of Buddhism, Tibetan language and Tibetan culture, advanced religious practitioners devoted to retreat and meditation, Dharma translators and to promote studies comparing and relating Buddhism with modern science.
g?ndh?r? (romanization): https://github.com/gandhariunicode/gandhari_unicode_font (as provided in EBMP page https://asian.washington.edu/ebmp-fonts-and-keyboard-templates)